Journal of Pest Science

, Volume 92, Issue 1, pp 281–297 | Cite as

Multi-component blends for trapping native and exotic longhorn beetles at potential points-of-entry and in forests

  • Jian-ting Fan
  • Olivier Denux
  • Claudine Courtin
  • Alexis Bernard
  • Marion Javal
  • Jocelyn G. Millar
  • Lawrence M. Hanks
  • Alain RoquesEmail author
Original Paper


The accidental introduction of exotic wood-boring cerambycid beetles represents an ever-increasing threat to forest biosecurity and the economies of many countries. Early detection of such species upon arrival at potential points-of-entry is challenging. Because pheromone components are often conserved among related species in the family Cerambycidae, we tested the generic attractiveness of different blends of pheromones composed of increasing numbers of pheromone components at both potential points-of-entry and in natural forests in France during 2014–2017. Initially, two different four-component blends were compared, one composed of fuscumol, fuscumol acetate, geranylacetone, and monochamol, and the other composed of 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one, anti-2,3-hexanediol, 2-methylbutanol, and prionic acid. In a second step, host volatiles (ethanol and [-]-α-pinene) were added, and finally, we tested the effectiveness of a mixture of all eight pheromone components with the two host volatiles. Overall, 13,153 cerambycid beetles of 118 species were trapped. The 114 native species trapped represent 48% of the French fauna, including more than 50% of the species in 25 of the 41 cerambycid tribes. At potential points-of-entry, captures included 2960 cerambycids of 49 species, including three exotic Asian species, two of which had never been reported previously in Europe. In forests, attraction to the four-component blends varied with their composition. Adding host volatiles did not change the overall attraction except for the species Phymatodes testaceus, which showed a fourfold increase in captures. Placing the two four-component blends on the same trap resulted in significant increases in the number of species and individuals captured compared to captures by traps baited with each blend individually. Finally, the eight-component pheromone blend was found to be as attractive as the combination of the two four-component blends hung together on the same trap, without apparent antagonistic effects. This finding suggests that use of multi-component lures may help to minimize the costs and manpower required to detect exotic and potentially invasive species.


Cerambycidae Early detection Multi-component pheromone lures Exotic Trapping Ports 



Jean-Luc Flot, Frédéric Delport and all staff of the French Forest Health Department with the French Ministry of Agriculture are gratefully acknowledged for their support. We are also grateful to the following colleagues for technical assistance during field trials: Christian Blazy, Béatrice Courtial, Matthieu Le Floc’h, Philippe Lorme, Emmanuelle Magnoux, Marie Millier, Julien Papaïx, Régis Phélut, Patrick Pineau, Christelle Robinet, Lionel Roques, Olivier Roques, Géraldine Roux. We thank Joël Giraud, Patrick Vigne, and the municipality of L’Argentière-la-Bessée for logistic assistance, and Laurent Blanchard and the National Forestry Office (Agence Territoriale des Hautes-Alpes) for the authorization of trapping in the “Les Deslioures” natural reserve of the Fournel forest. This research was supported by successive grants from the French Ministry of Agriculture (Projects PORTRAP I-2015/045, PORTRAP II-2016/098, and PORTRAP III-2017/276 “Test de l’efficacité de pièges génériques multi-composés pour la détection précoce d’insectes exotiques xylophages dans les sites potentiels d’entrée sur le territoire national”) and by the EUPHRESCO MULTITRAP project (“Multi-lure and multi-trap surveillance for invasive tree pests”).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standard

All authorization to carry out experiments in ports and forests has been obtained. Experiments in forests were carried out in state-owned forests, managed by the French Ministry of Agriculture which gave the grants. All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 15 kb)
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.INRA UR 633 Zoologie ForestièreOrléansFrance
  2. 2.School of Forestry and BiotechnologyZhejiang Agriculture and Forestry UniversityLin’anChina
  3. 3.Department of EntomologyUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA
  4. 4.Department of ChemistryUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA
  5. 5.Department of EntomologyUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA

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