Exploration for native parasitoids of Drosophila suzukii in China reveals a diversity of parasitoid species and narrow host range of the dominant parasitoid
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Drosophila suzukii is native to East Asia and an invasive pest of fruit crops widely established in the Americas and Europe. The lack of effective indigenous parasitoids of D. suzukii in the invaded regions prompted surveys for co-evolved parasitoids in Yunnan Province, China, from 2013 to 2016. From banana-baited traps (2013–2015), 458 parasitoids of drosophilids were reared, comprised of Braconidae (49.56%), Figitidae (37.55%), Diapriidae (7.42%), and Pteromalidae (5.46%). Larval parasitoids included seven braconid species, all Asobara and primarily Asobara mesocauda, and five figitid species, primarily Leptopilina japonica japonica. Pupal parasitoids were the diapriid Trichopria drosophilae and the pteromalid Pachycrepoideus vindemiae. Collections from wild fruits (2016) provided more interesting results. From the puparia of drosophilids collected, comprised of D. suzukii and Drosophila pulchrella, emerged 1354 parasitoids. The larval parasitoids Ganaspis brasiliensis and L. j. japonica were the prevalent species, reaching a fairly high percentage parasitism of fly puparia collected from berries of Rubus foliosus (22.35%), R. niveus (18.81%), Fragaria moupinensis (19.75%), and Sambucus adnata (63.46%). Ganaspis brasiliensis was the dominant species and was collected only from D. suzukii and D. pulchrella-infested fruits and never from banana-baited traps. Molecular analysis showed two G. brasiliensis lineages, which are discussed with respect to previous Japanese collections. Quarantine tests showed that G. brasiliensis developed from D. suzukii and two closely related hosts (Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans) but did not develop from seven non-target drosophilid species. Our results suggest that G. brasiliensis is a promising classical biocontrol agent for release in invaded regions.
KeywordsClassical biological control Ganaspis brasiliensis Genetic variation Leptopilina japonica japonica Invasive species Spotted wing drosophila
We thank Yanan Zheng (Shengyang Agricultural University, China) for help with collections in Yunnan; Huan-Chong Wang (Yunnan University, China) and Shu-Dong Zhang (Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for identification of plant species sampled in this work; Alexandra Wood, Alexandra Nance, John Jones, Kei-Lin Ooi and Jeremy Anderson (University of California, Berkeley) for assistance with quarantine studies. Funding for research was supported in the USA by the USDA-NIFA award # 2010-51181-21167, the USDA APHIS (Farm bill, fund 14-8130-0463), and the California Cherry Board, and in Italy by the UE FP7/2007-2013 project ASCII under grant agreement PIRSES-GA-2012-318246. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely to provide specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the USDA. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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