This study investigated the differences between categorizing the self-face and other faces. Additionally, the study aimed to determine whether self-face categorization is consistent with dual-system categorization, such as in the competition between verbal and implicit systems (COVIS) model, or whether the self-face uses different categorizing methods than those used with other faces. The experiment adopted a dual-task paradigm to examine how participants complete rule-based/information-integration categorization tasks of the self-face/other faces and their method of processing when a numerical Stroop task was introduced. Results indicated that participants processed the self-face better than other faces in rule-based categorization, and there was no significant difference between categorization of the self-face and other faces during a single or dual task. This suggests there is a self-processing advantage in classification tasks; however, categorization based on face stimuli is not consistent with the COVIS model. Face categorization has a self-advantage effect, and categorization of human faces is distinctive from other types of categorization.
Categorization Face recognition Competition between verbal and implicit systems Dual-task paradigm
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This study was supported by the Chinese Ministry of Education of Humanities and Social Science Project (No. 17YCJ190030) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China under grant No. 31860285.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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