Simultaneous Determination of Three Herbicides in Honey Samples Using an Aqueous Biphasic System Coupled with HPLC–MS/MS
- 55 Downloads
A simple and environmentally friendly method was developed for simultaneous determination of residue from three triazine herbicides (simetryn, prometryn, and atrazine) from honey samples. The selected herbicides were extracted and purified using an aqueous biphasic system (ABS) based on an ethylene oxide/propylene oxide copolymer (EOPO-2500) and choline acetate ([Ch][Ac]), and determined by HPLC–MS/MS. The partitioning behavior of the analytes using the ABS was investigated, and the analytes mainly concentrated in the copolymer phase. At three spiked levels (2.0, 20.0, 100.0 μg kg−1), the recoveries of the analytes were determined in the range of 81–108%, with relative standard deviations no higher than 10.5%. The limits of quantification for the herbicides ranged from 0.1 to 1.5 µg kg−1. The proposed method is very promising for sample preparation, taking into account its simple operation, mild conditions, and biocompatibility, without the use of any organic solvents during the extraction process.
KeywordsHPLC–MS/MS Aqueous biphasic system Cholinium ionic liquid Triazine herbicide
This project was financially supported by the National Key Research and Development project of China (grant no. 2017YFD08007001). The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. Robin D. Rogers of The University of Alabama for his support in the research of the aqueous biphasic system.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 4.Zou N, Yuan C, Liu S, Han Y, Li Y, Zhang J, Xu X, Li X, Pan C (2016) Coupling of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polydimethylsiloxane coated stir bar sorptive extraction with pulse glow discharge-ion mobility spectrometry for analysis of triazine herbicides in water and soil samples. J Chromatogr A 1457:14–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Gutowski KE, Broker GA, Willauer HD, Huddleston JG, Swatloski RP, Holbrey JD, Rogers RD (2003) Controlling the aqueous miscibility of ionic liquids: aqueous biphasic systems of water-miscible ionic liquids and water-structuring salts for recycle, metathesis, and separations. J Am Chem Soc 125:6632–6633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Wei HR (2011) Formation, adsorption, and degradation of N-nitrosoatrazine in water and soil. In: Natural Resource Sciences University of Nebraska-Lincoln. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1024&context=natresdiss