Advertisement

Chromatographia

, Volume 82, Issue 10, pp 1523–1529 | Cite as

Determination of Residual Solvents in Pharmaceuticals by Static Headspace Gas Chromatography Using Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents as Mediums: A Partition Coefficients Study

  • Wei Zhang
  • Sheng Fang
  • Xianrui LiangEmail author
Original
  • 27 Downloads

Abstract

A relatively new application of natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) as eco-friendly dilution mediums in static headspace gas chromatography (SHS-GC) was further studied. The partition coefficients of twelve organic solvents in NADESs were determined by SHS-GC. Eight NADESs were prepared with choline chloride and carboxylic acids, polyols and urea in different molar ratios. The twelve organic solvents included four haloalkanes, four aprotic solvents, two alcohols, and two alkanes. The partition coefficients (K) of each solvent in different NADESs were determined and discussed. The logK values of alkanes and aprotic solvents in NADESs were low, while the logK of haloalkanes and alcohols was high. That is, alkanes and aprotic solvents in NADESs had better headspace efficiency, indicating that the interaction between the solvents and the NADESs played an important role. The relationship between the logK and the properties of NADESs and organic solvents was further discussed. As an example, the method was applied to determine the residual solvents in paroxetine by SHS-GC with appropriate NADES. This study is beneficial for the selection of suitable NADESs as green mediums for the detection of residual solvents in pharmaceuticals.

Keywords

Partition coefficient Natural deep eutectic solvents Static headspace gas chromatography Residual solvents 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors have declared no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10337_2019_3775_MOESM1_ESM.doc (24 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 24 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Siddiqui MR, Singh R, Bhatnagar A, Kumar J, Chaudhary M (2017) Determination of residual solvents in docetaxel by headspace gas chromatography. Arab J Chem 10:S2479–S2484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Deconinck E, Canfyn M, Sacré PY, Courselle P, De Beer JO (2013) Evaluation of the residual solvent content of counterfeit tablets and capsules. J Pharm Biomed Anal 81–82:80–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liu Y, Hu CQ (2006) Establishment of a knowledge base for identification of residual solvents in pharmaceuticals. Anal Chim Acta 575:246–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Camarasu C, Madichie C, Williams R (2006) Recent progress in the determination of volatile impurities in pharmaceuticals. Trends Anal Chem 25:768–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Somuramasami J, Wei YC, Soliman EF, Rustum A (2011) Static headspace gas chromatographic method for the determination of low and high boiling residual solvents in betamethasone valerate. J Pharm Biomed Anal 54:242–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tao ZY, Chai XS, Wu SB (2011) Determination of epichlorohydrin and 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol in synthesis of cationic etherifying reagent by headspace gas chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1218:6518–6521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    D’Autry W, Zheng C, Wolfs K, Yarramraju S, Hoogmartens J, Schepdael AV (2011) Mixed aqueous solutions as dilution media in the determination of residual solvents by static headspace gas chromatography. J Sep Sci 34:1299–1308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Urakami K, Higashi A, Umemoto K, Godo M (2004) Matrix media selection for the determination of residual solvents in pharmaceuticals by static headspace gas chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1057:203–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sitaramaraju Y, Van Hul A, Wolfs K, Schepdael AV, Hoogmartens J, Adams E (2008) Static headspace gas chromatography of (semi-)volatile drugs in pharmaceuticals for topical use. J Pharm Biomed Anal 47:834–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tian J, Rustum A (2016) Development and validation of a fast static headspace GC method for determination of residual solvents in permethrin. J Pharm Biomed Anal 128:408–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li J, Shao S, Solorzano M, Allmaier GJ, Kurtulik PT (2009) Determination of the residual ethanol in hydroalcoholic sealed hard gelatin capsules by static headspace gas chromatography with immiscible binary solvents. J Chromatogr A 1216:3328–3336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D’Autry W, Zheng C, Bugalama J, Wolfs K, Hoogmartens J, Adams E, Wang B, Van Schepdael A (2011) Liquid paraffin as new dilution medium for the analysis of high boiling point residual solvents with static headspace-gas chromatography. J Pharm Biomed Anal 55:1017–1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nacham O, Ho TD, Anderson JL, Webster GK (2017) Use of ionic liquids as headspace gas chromatography diluents for the analysis of residual solvents in pharmaceuticals. J Pharm Biomed Anal 145:879–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang M, Fang S, Liang X (2018) Natural deep eutectic solvents as eco-friendly and sustainable dilution medium for the determination of residual organic solvents in pharmaceuticals with static headspace-gas chromatography. J Pharm Biomed Anal 158:262–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cunha SC, Fernandes JO (2018) Extraction techniques with deep eutectic solvents. Trends Anal Chem 105:225–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tang B, Zhang H, Row KH (2015) Application of deep eutectic solvents in the extraction and separation of target compounds from various samples. J Sep Sci 38:1053–1064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shishov A, Bulatov A, Locatelli M, Carradori S, Andruch V (2017) Application of deep eutectic solvents in analytical chemistry. A review. Microchem J 135:33–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Roehrer S, Bezold F, García EM, Minceva M (2016) Deep eutectic solvents in countercurrent and centrifugal partition chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1434:102–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yu GW, Cheng Q, Nie J, Wang XJ, Wang P, Li ZG, Lee MR (2018) Microwave hydrodistillation based on deep eutectic solvent for extraction and analysis of essential oil from three Amomum species using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Chromatographia 81:657–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bezold F, Weinberger ME, Minceva M (2017) Computational solvent system screening for the separation of tocopherols with centrifugal partition chromatography using deep eutectic solvent-based biphasic systems. J Chromatogr A 1491:153–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Huang Y, Feng F, Jiang J, Qiao Y, Wu T, Voglmeir J, Chen ZG (2017) Green and efficient extraction of rutin from tartary buckwheat hull by using natural deep eutectic solvents. Food Chem 221:1400–1405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ni M, Sun T, Zhang L, Liu Y, Xu M, Jiang Y (2014) Relationship study of partition coefficients between ionic liquid and headspace for organic solvents by HS-GC. J Chromatogr B 945–946:60–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    He X, Jiang Y, Lei L, Li J, Ni M (2011) Quantitative prediction of ionic liquid-gas partition coefficients for residual solvents by HS-GC. Chromatographia 74:157–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Revelli AL, Mutelet F, Jaubert JN (2009) Partition coefficients of organic compounds in new imidazolium based ionic liquids using inverse gas chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1216:4775–4786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    George W (2001) Handbook of solvents. Toronto, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Von Wald G, Albers D, Cortes H, McCabe T (2008) Background vapor from six ionic liquids and the partition coefficients and limits of detection for 10 different analytes in those ionic liquids measured using headspace gas chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1201:15–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Collaborative Innovation Center of Yangtze River Delta Region Green Pharmaceuticals, College of Pharmaceutical SciencesZhejiang University of TechnologyHangzhouChina
  2. 2.School of Food Science and BiotechnologyZhejiang Gongshang UniversityHangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations