, Volume 82, Issue 10, pp 1437–1447 | Cite as

Synthesis of Octyl-Quaternary Ammonium Mixed-Mode Stationary Phase by Vapor Deposition Approach and Its Application in Compound Preparation Separation

  • Fan Zhang
  • Lei ChenEmail author


An octyl-quaternary ammonium (Sil-C8-QA)-modified silica stationary phase was prepared by a two-step vapor deposition method which can substantially reduce the consumption of toxic organic solvents. The structure of the dual-functional ligands stationary phase was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and solid-state 13C CP/MAS NMR. Following elemental analysis, the surface density of octyl and quaternary ammonium bonding amount is 2.13 µmol m−2 and 0.77 µmol m−2, respectively. The efficiency and selectivity of the two-ligand phases were compared with two sole functional ligand phases: quaternary ammonium (Sil-QA)- and octyl-modified silica (Sil-C8). Chromatographic evaluation demonstrated a mixed-mode reversed-phase/anion-exchange retention property on the Sil-C8-QA column. The retention behavior of a homologous series of alkylbenzoic acids on the synthesized phase was systematically studied by changing the pH, ionic, and solvent strength of the mobile phase. A well-established mixed-model mechanism was confirmed. The Sil-C8-QA phase can predominantly enhance the retention of acidic drugs and improve their selectivity. It was also successfully applied to the simultaneous separation and determination of three kinds of compound preparations with large differences in component polarity.

Graphic abstract


Mixed-mode chromatography (MMC) Reversed-phase chromatography Ion-exchange chromatography Vapor deposition Octyl-quaternary ammonium Compound preparation 



We thank Prof. Qian-Hong Wan from Tianjin University for his technical assistance with chromatography evaluation. We also thank Dr. Xinghua Jin of Tianjin University for performing the elemental analysis.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10337_2019_3774_MOESM1_ESM.docx (393 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 393 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Pharmaceutical Science and TechnologyTianjin UniversityTianjinChina

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