The Benefits of Ultra-High-Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatography in Determination of Lipophilic Vitamins in Dietary Supplements
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Nine tocopherol derivatives including four tocopherols, four tocotrienols, and one esterified form of α-tocopherol acetate were analyzed using ultra-high-performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) with diode array detection. The separation was carried out on BEH 2-EP column using shallow gradient elution of 1–4% methanol and CO2 in 5 min. Complementary ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed using Ascentis Express F5 core–shell stationary phase and isocratic elution with 75% acetonitrile/methanol (1:1) and 25% water. This separation took 12 min that is the shortest liquid chromatography run in analysis of all tocopherol derivatives reported so far. However, our UHPSFC method resulted in more than two times faster analysis, and allowed direct injection of heptane solutions and extracts from liquid–liquid extraction. These features made UHPSFC a method of choice for subsequent analysis of dietary supplements containing different forms of vitamin E. Sample preparation methods were optimized for individual dosage forms of drops, capsules, tablets, and granulate.
KeywordsUltra-high-performance supercritical fluid chromatography Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography Liquid–liquid extraction Vitamin E Dietary supplements Method validation
The authors gratefully acknowledge the Grant project SVV no. 260412/2018 and the project EFSA-CDN (no. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000841) co-funded by ERDF.
Kateřina Plachká acknowledges funding of the Grant project SVV no. 260412/2017. Lucie Nováková and František Švec acknowledge the funding of the project EFSA-CDN (no. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000841) co-funded by ERDF.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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