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Chromatographia

, Volume 82, Issue 1, pp 77–100 | Cite as

Liquid Chromatography Techniques in Lipidomics Research

  • Mike Lange
  • Zhixu Ni
  • Angela Criscuolo
  • Maria FedorovaEmail author
Review
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. 50th Anniversary Commemorative Issue

Abstract

Lipids represent a very diverse group of compounds with a high variety of physicochemical properties determining their functional activities. For omics-wide identification of lipid species from complex biological samples, several crucial analytical steps including extraction, chromatographic separation and mass spectrometry analysis need to be carefully considered and validated. Here we review applications of three main chromatography techniques—reversed phase, normal phase and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography—for analysis of complex natural lipidomes aiming to uncover the diversity of lipid species. To correlate lipid separation with their physicochemical properties, lipid chemical space was reconstructed and used to explain principles underlying different chromatographic techniques. Furthermore, examples of available methods for analysis of complex natural lipidomes characterized by high diversity and dynamic range of lipid concentrations are illustrated for adipose tissue lipidomics.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Lipids Lipidomics Liquid chromatography RP-LC NP-LC HILIC Adipose tissue 

Abbreviations

1,2-DAG

1,2-Diacylglycerol

1,3-DAG

1,3-Diacylglycerol

1-LPC

1-Lysophosphatidylcholine

1-LPG

1-Lysophosphatidylglycerol

1-MAG

1-Monoacylglycerol

2-LPC

2-Lysophosphatidylcholine

2-LPE

2-Lysophosphatidylethanolamine

2-LPG

2-Lysophosphatidylglycerol

Ag-HPLC

Argentation/silver ion HPLC

AmFm

Ammonium formate

AmOAc

Ammonium acetate

ASA

Accessible surface area

ASG

Acylated steryl glycosides

AT

Adipose tissue

BEH

Ethylene bridged hybrid

C18

Octadecyl derivatized silica

C1P

Ceramide-1-phosphate

C30

Triacontanyl derivatized silica

C4

Butyl derivatized silica

C8

Octyl derivatized silica

CE

Cholesteryl esters

Cer

Ceramide

Cer-NOH

Non-hydroxy fatty acid ceramides

Cer-OH

Hydroxy fatty acid ceramide

CHCl3

Chloroform

Chol

Free cholesterol

CL

Cardiolipin

CMNH

Charge modulated hydroxyethyl amide HILIC

CN

Cyanopropyl

CS

Cholesteryl sulfate

cyHex

Cyclohexane

DAG

Diacylglycerol

DCM

Dichloromethane

DDA

Data-dependent acquisition

DGCC

Diacylglycerol-carboxymethylcholine

DGDG

Digalactosyldiacylglycerols

DGTS

Diacylglycerol-trimethylhomoserin

dhCer1P

Dihydro-ceramide-1-phosphate

Dimet-SPH

Dimethyl-sphingosine

Diol

Dihydroxy-propyl

ECN

Equivalent carbon number

ESI

Electrospray ionization

EtOAc

Ethyl acetate

EtOH

Ethanol

FA

Formic acid

FAME

Fatty acid methyl esters

FFA

Free fatty acid

FPP

Fully porous particles

GalCer

Galactosylceramide

GalCer-NOH

Non-hydroxy galactosylceramide

GlcCer

Glucosylceramide

GM1

Ganglioside

H2O

Water

H3PO4

Phosphoric acid

Hept

Heptane

Hex

Hexane

HexCer

Hexosylceramide

HILIC

Hydrophilic interaction chromatography

HOAc

Acetic acid

i-Hex

Iso-hexane

i-Oct

Iso-octane

IPA

Isopropanol

IPC

Inositol-phosphoceramide

LAA

Lipoamino acid

LacCer

Lactosylceramide

LC–MS

Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

LPA

Lysophosphatidic acid

LPA

Lysophosphatidic acid

LPC

Lyso-phosphatidylcholine

LPE

Lysophosphatidylethanolamine

LPG

Lysophosphatidylglycerol

LPI

Lysophosphatidylinositol

MAG

Monoacylglycerol

MB

Mobile phase

MD

Molecular descriptor

MeCN

Acetonitrile

MeDAG

Monoalkyl diacylglycerol

MeOH

Methanol

MGDG

Monogalatosyldiacylglycerols

MS

Mass spectrometry

MTBE

Methyl-tert-butyl-ether

NAPE

N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine

NH3

Ammonia

NMM

N-methylmorpholine

NPC

Normal phase chromatography

PA

Phosphatidic acid

PC

Phosphatidylcholine

PC1

Principal component 1

PC2

Principal component 2

PCA

Principal component analysis

PE

Phosphatidylethanolamine

PG

Phosphatidylglycerol

Phyto-SPH

Phytosphingosine

PI

Phosphatidylinositol

P-PC

Plasmalogen-phosphatidylcholine

P-PE

Plasmalogen-phosphtadiylethanolamine

PS

Phosphatidylserine

PVA

Polyvinyl alcohol

RP

Reversed phase

RPC

Reversed phase chromatography

S1P

Sphingosine-1-phosphate

Sa1P

Sphinganine-1-phosphate

SCP

Solid core particles

SFC

Supercritical fluid chromatography

SG

Steryl glycosides

Si

Silica

Si-H

Silica hydride

SM

Sphingomyelin

SP

Stationary phase

SPA

Sphinganine

SPH

Sphingosine

SPH

Sphingosine

SQ

Squalene

SQDG

Sulfoqunovosyl diacylglycerol

ST

Sulfatide

TAG

Triacylglycerols

TEA

Trimethylamine

TFA

Trifluoro acetic acid

THF

Tetrahydrofurane

Trimet-SPH

Trimethyl-sphingosine

VAT

Visceral adipose tissue

WAT

White adipose tissue

Notes

Funding

Financial support from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) within the framework of the e:Med research and funding concept for SysMedOS project (to MF) and EU H2020 funded project MASSTRPLAN (Grant number 675132; to MF) are gratefully acknowledged.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

10337_2018_3656_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (37 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 37 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mike Lange
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhixu Ni
    • 1
    • 2
  • Angela Criscuolo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Maria Fedorova
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Institut für Bioanalytische Chemie, Faculty of Chemistry and Mineralogy, Biotechnologisch-Biomedizinisches ZentrumLeipzig UniversityLeipzigGermany
  2. 2.Center for Biotechnology and BiomedicineUniversity of LeipzigLeipzigGermany
  3. 3.Thermo Fisher Scientific (Bremen) GmbHBremenGermany

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