Cardiorenal sodium MRI in small rodents using a quadrature birdcage volume resonator at 9.4 T
- 11 Downloads
Design, implementation, evaluation and application of a quadrature birdcage radiofrequency (RF) resonator tailored for renal and cardiac sodium (23Na) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in rats at 9.4 T.
Materials and methods
A low pass birdcage resonator (16 rungs, din = 62 mm) was developed. The transmission field (B1+) was examined with EMF simulations. The scattering parameter (S-parameter) and the quality factor (Q-factor) were measured. For experimental validation B1+-field maps were acquired with the double-angle method. In vivo sodium imaging of the heart (spatial resolution: (1 × 1 × 5) mm3) and kidney (spatial resolution: (1 × 1 × 10) mm3) was performed with a FLASH technique.
The RF resonator exhibits RF characteristics, transmission field homogeneity and penetration that afford 23Na MR in vivo imaging of the kidney and heart at 9.4 T. For the renal cortex and medulla a SNRs of 8 and 13 were obtained and a SNRs of 14 and 15 were observed for the left and right ventricle.
These initial results obtained in vivo in rats using the quadrature birdcage volume RF resonator for 23Na MRI permit dedicated studies on experimental models of cardiac and renal diseases, which would contribute to translational research of the cardiorenal syndrome.
Keywords23Na MR Sodium Renal Cardiac Cardiorenal
This work was funded in part (T. Niendorf, E. Seeliger) by the German Research Foundation (Gefoerdert durch die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), Projektnummer394046635, SFB 1365, RENOPROTECTION. Funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation), Project number 394046635, SFB 1365, RENOPROTECTION).
Study conception and design: LB, HW, AK, CO, AP, TN, ES. Acquisition of data: LB, AP. M-CK, SW. Analysis and interpretation of data: LB, LS, AK. Drafting of manuscript: LB, TN. Critical revision: LB, HW, AK, CO, SW, LS, M-CK, AP, TN.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Thoralf Niendorf is CEO of MRI.TOOLS GmbH, Berlin, Germany. Andre Kuehne and Helmar Waiczies are employees of MRI.TOOLS GmbH, Berlin, Germany.
- 2.Ronco C, McCullough P, Anker SD, Anand I, Aspromonte N, Bagshaw SM, Bellomo R, Berl T, Bobek I, Cruz DN, Daliento L, Davenport A, Haapio M, Hillege H, House AA, Katz N, Maisel A, Mankad S, Zanco P, Mebazaa A, Palazzuoli A, Ronco F, Shaw A, Sheinfeld G, Soni S, Vescovo G, Zamperetti N, Ponikowski P (2010) Cardio-renal syndromes: report from the consensus conference of the acute dialysis quality initiative. Eur Heart J 31(6):703–711PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 3.Rangaswami J, Bhalla V, Blair JEA, Chang TI, Costa S, Lentine KL, Lerma EV, Mezue K, Molitch M, Mullens W, Ronco C, Tang WHW, McCullough PA (2019) Cardiorenal Syndrome: classification, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment strategies: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 139(16):e840–e878PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 10.Douglas C, Eaton JPP (2009) Vander's renal physiology, 7th edn. Mc Graw Hill Lange, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 29.Liu H, Zhou D, Garcia ML, Kohler MG, Shen X, Williams DS, Klimas MT, Hargreaves RJ, Kaczorowski GJ (2015) Characteristic time courses of cortical and medullary sodium signals measured by noninvasive (23) Na-MRI in rat kidney induced by furosemide. J Magn Reson Imaging 41(6):1622–1628PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 36.Boehmert L, Kuehne A, Waiczies H, Wenz D, Eigentler TW, Funk S, von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff F, Schulz-Menger J, Nagel AM, Seeliger E, Niendorf T (2019) Cardiorenal sodium MRI at 7.0 Tesla using a 4/4 channel (1) H/(23) Na radiofrequency antenna array. Magn Reson Med 82(6):2343–2356PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 45.National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). Determination of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging. EMA Standards Publication MS 1-2008.Google Scholar
- 48.Glover GH, Hayes CE, Pelc NJ, Edelstein WA, Mueller OM, Hart HR, Hardy CJ, Odonnell M, Barber WD (1985) Comparison of linear and circular-polarization for magnetic-resonance imaging. J Magn Reson 64(2):255–270Google Scholar