Mitigating net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity by intermittent irrigation under straw incorporation in Chinese double-rice cropping systems

  • Chen Cheng
  • Xiuxia Yang
  • Jianjun Wang
  • Kang Luo
  • Adnan Rasheed
  • Yongjun Zeng
  • Qingyin ShangEmail author


To clarify the effect of water management on global warming potential and crop yield with rice straw returning in typical double-rice cropping systems, a field experiment was conducted in 2013–2016. The three strategies of water management included continuous flooding (F), flooding during the rice season but with drainage during the midseason and harvest time (F–D–F), and flooding during transplanting and tillering stages, drainage during the midseason and intermittent irrigation after midseason drainage (F–D–F–M). Compared with F plots, annual topsoil organic carbon sequestration rates were reduced by 10–45% and 49–66% for F–D–F and F–D–F–M plots, respectively. However, the annual CH4 emissions were significantly decreased by 33–52% and 46–69% for the F–D–F and F–D–F–M plots. As a result, the net annual global warming potential was reduced by 34–57% for F–D–F plots and 38–63% for F–D–F–M plots, respectively. Similarly, the greenhouse gas intensity was reduced 38–60% and 39–64% for F–D–F and F–D–F–M plots, respectively. These results suggested that intermittent irrigation has the potential to mitigate GHG emissions without sacrificing grain yield under rice straw returning in Chinese rice cropping systems.


Water management Rice Methane Nitrous oxide GHGI GWP 


  1. Ahn JH, Choi MY, Kim BY, Lee JS, Song J, Kim GY, Weon HY (2014) Effects of water-saving irrigation on emissions of greenhouse gases and prokaryotic communities in rice paddy soil. Microb Ecol 68:271–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chu G, Wang Z, Zhang H, Liu L, Yang J, Zhang J (2015) Alternate wetting and moderate drying increases rice yield and reduces methane emission in paddy field with wheat straw residue incorporation. Food Secur 4:238–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. De Maria SC, Bischetti GB, Chiaradia EA, Facchi A, Miniotti EF, Rienzner M, Gandolfi C (2017) The role of water management and environmental factors on field irrigation requirements and water productivity of rice. Irrig Sci 35:11–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dong L, Yang H, Yu D, Zhang H, Liu Y, Shi X (2011) Effect of irrigation with water diverted from the yellow river on carbon sequestration in soils of different types in Ningxia irrigation zone. Acta Pedol Sin 48:922–930 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  5. Dong D, Yang M, Wang C, Wang H, Li Y, Luo J, Wu W (2013) Responses of methane emissions and rice yield to applications of biochar and straw in a paddy field. J Soil Sediment 13:1450–1460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Freibauer A, Rounsevell MD, Smith P, Verhagen J (2004) Carbon sequestration in the agricultural soils of Europe. Geoderma 122:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gaihre YK, Wassmann R, Villegas-Pangga G (2013) Impact of elevated temperatures on greenhouse gas emissions in rice systems: interaction with straw incorporation studied in a growth chamber experiment. Plant Soil 373:857–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ghimire R, Norton U, Bista P, Obour AK, Norton JB (2017) Soil organic matter, greenhouse gases and net global warming potential of irrigated conventional, reduced-tillage and organic cropping systems. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 107:49–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Han L, Zhang Y, Jin S, Wang J, Wei Y, Cui N, Wei W (2010) Effect of different irrigation patterns on soil dissolved organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon in protected field. Sci Agric Sin 43:1625–1633 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  10. Haque MM, Kim SY, Ali MA, Kim PJ (2015) Contribution of greenhouse gas emissions during cropping and fallow seasons on total global warming potential in mono-rice paddy soils. Plant Soil 387:251–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hou H, Peng S, Xu J, Yang S, Mao Z (2012) Seasonal variations of CH4 and N2O emissions in response to water management of paddy fields located in Southeast China. Chemosphere 89:884–892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ibrahim M, Cao CG, Zhan M, Li CF, Iqbal J (2015) Changes of CO2 emission and labile organic carbon as influenced by rice straw and different water regimes. Int J Environ Sci Technol 12:263–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Khan MA, Reza MOH, Khan MT, Ali MA (2015) Effect of irrigation water management practices and rice cultivars on methane (CH4) emission and rice productivity. IJIAS 10:516–534Google Scholar
  14. Kudo Y, Noborio K, Shimoozono N, Kurihara R (2014) The effective water management practice for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and maintaining rice yield in central Japan. Agric Ecosyst Environ 186:77–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kudo Y, Noborio K, Shimoozono N, Kurihara R, Minami H (2017) Greenhouse gases emission from paddy soil during the fallow season with and without winter flooding in central Japan. Paddy Water Environ 15:217–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lagomarsino A, Agnelli AE, Linquist B, Adviento-Borbe MA, Agnelli A, Gavina G, Ferrara RM (2016) Alternate wetting and drying of rice reduced CH4 emissions but triggered N2O peaks in a clayey soil of central Italy. Pedosphere 26:533–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Li X, Yuan W, Xu H, Cai Z, Yagi K (2011) Effect of timing and duration of midseason aeration on CH4 and N2O emissions from irrigated lowland rice paddies in China. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 91:293–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu S, Zhang Y, Lin F, Zhang L, Zou J (2014) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from direct-seeded and seedling-transplanted rice paddies in southeast China. Plant Soil 374:285–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu YL, Zhou ZQ, Zhang XX, Xu X, Chen H, Xiong ZQ (2015) Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity from the double rice system with integrated soil-crop system management: a three-year field study. Atmos Environ 116:92–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lu X, Lu X (2017) Tillage and crop residue effects on the energy consumption, input–output costs and greenhouse gas emissions of maize crops. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 108:323–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ma E, Zhang G, Ma J, Xu H, Cai Z, Yagi K (2010) Effects of rice straw returning methods on N2O emission during wheat-growing season. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 88:463–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ma J, Ji Y, Zhang G, Xu H, Yagi K (2013a) Timing of midseason aeration to reduce CH4 and N2O emissions from double rice cultivation in China. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 59:35–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ma YC, Kong XW, Yang B, Zhang XL, Yan XY, Yang JC, Xiong ZQ (2013b) Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity of annual rice–wheat rotations with integrated soil–crop system management. Agric Ecosyst Environ 164:209–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Maris SC, Teira-Esmatges MR, Català MM (2016) Influence of irrigation frequency on greenhouse gases emission from a paddy soil. Paddy Water Environ 14:199–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pan GX, Li LQ, Wu LS, Zhang XH (2004) Storage and sequestration potential of topsoil organic carbon in China’s paddy soils. Glob Change Biol 10:79–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Peng S, Hou H, Xu J, Mao Z, Abudu S, Luo Y (2011a) Nitrous oxide emissions from paddy fields under different water managements in southeast China. Paddy Water Environ 9:403–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Peng S, Hou H, Xu J, Wu X (2011b) Effects of water-saving irrigation on seasonal characteristics of N2O emission from paddy fields. Trans Chin Soc Agric Eng 27:14–18 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  28. Peyron M, Bertora C, Pelissetti S, Said-Pullicino D, Celi L, Miniotti E, Sacco D (2016) Greenhouse gas emissions as affected by different water management practices in temperate rice paddies. Agric Ecosyst Environ 232:17–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Qian Y, Follett RF, Kimble JM (2010) Soil organic carbon input from urban turfgrasses. Soil Sci Soc Am J 74:366–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ring MJ, Lindner D, Cross EF, Schlesinger ME (2012) Causes of the global warming observed since the 19th century. Atmos Clim Sci 2:401–415Google Scholar
  31. Sander BO, Samson M, Buresh RJ (2014) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from flooded rice fields as affected by water and straw management between rice crops. Geoderma 235:355–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Setyanto P, Makarim AK, Fagi AM, Wassmann R, Buendia LV (2000) Crop management affecting methane emissions from irrigated and rainfed rice in Central Java (Indonesia). Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 58:85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shang Q, Yang X, Gao C, Wu P, Liu J, Xu Y, Guo S (2011) Net annual global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in Chinese double rice-cropping systems: a 3-year field measurement in long-term fertilizer experiments. GCB 17:2196–2210Google Scholar
  34. Shu X, Zhu AN, Zhang JB, Yang WL, Xin XL, Zhang XF (2015) Changes in soil organic carbon and aggregate stability after conversion to conservation tillage for seven years in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China. J Integr Agric 14:1202–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner GK, Tignor MM, Allen SK, Boschung J, Midgley PM (2014) Climate Change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of IPCC the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeGoogle Scholar
  36. Tang H, Xiao X, Tang W, Wang K, Sun J, Li W, Yang G (2015) Effects of winter covering crop residue incorporation on CH4 and N2O emission from double-cropped paddy fields in southern China. Environ Sci Pollut R 22:12689–12698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Vibol S, Towprayoon S (2010) Estimation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice field with rice straw management in Cambodia. Environ Monit Assess 161:301–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wang JY, Jia JX, Xiong ZQ, Khalil MAK, Xing GX (2011) Water regime-nitrogen fertilizer-straw incorporation interaction: field study on nitrous oxide emissions from a rice agroecosystem in Nanjing, China. Agric Ecosyst Environ 141:437–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wang JY, Zhang XL, Xiong ZQ, Khalil MAK, Zhao X, Xie YX, Xing GX (2012) Methane emissions from a rice agroecosystem in South China: effects of water regime, straw incorporation and nitrogen fertilizer. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 93:103–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wang X, Yang H, Liu J, Wu J, Chen W, Wu J, Bian X (2015) Effects of ditch-buried straw return on soil organic carbon and rice yields in a rice–wheat rotation system. Catena 127:56–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Win KT, Nonaka R, Win AT, Sasada Y, Toyota K, Motobayashi T (2015) Effects of water saving irrigation and rice variety on greenhouse gas emissions and water use efficiency in a paddy field fertilized with anaerobically digested pig slurry. Paddy Water Environ 13:51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wu X, Wang W, Xie X, Yin C, Hou H, Yan W, Wang G (2018) Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity as affected by different water management strategies in chinese double rice-cropping systems. Sci Rep 8(1):779–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Xie L, Jing XU, Guo L, Yuxiu XU, Sun X, Zhao H (2017) Impact of water/fertilizer management on methane emission in paddy fields and on global warming potential. Chin J Eco-Agric 25:958–967 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  44. Xiong ZQ, Liu YL, Wu Z, Zhang XL, Liu P, Huang TQ (2015) Differences in net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity between major rice-based cropping systems in China. Sci Rep 5:17774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Xu Y, Zhan M, Cao C, Ge J, Ye R, Tian S, Cai M (2017) Effects of irrigation management during the rice growing season on soil organic carbon pools. Plant Soil 421:337–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yan M, Luo T, Bian R, Cheng K, Pan G, Rees R (2015) A comparative study on carbon footprint of rice production between household and aggregated farms from Jiangxi, China. Environ Monit Assess 187:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhao S, Li K, Zhou W, Qiu S, Huang S, He P (2016a) Changes in soil microbial community, enzyme activities and organic matter fractions under long-term straw return in north-central China. Agric Ecosyst Environ 216:82–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhao XM, He L, Zhang ZD, Wang HB, Zhao LP (2016b) Simulation of accumulation and mineralization (CO2 release) of organic carbon in chernozem under different straw return ways after corn harvesting. Soil Till Res 156:148–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The International Society of Paddy and Water Environment Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chen Cheng
    • 1
  • Xiuxia Yang
    • 1
  • Jianjun Wang
    • 1
  • Kang Luo
    • 1
  • Adnan Rasheed
    • 1
  • Yongjun Zeng
    • 1
  • Qingyin Shang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of EducationJiangxi Agricultural UniversityNanchangChina

Personalised recommendations