Advertisement

Unveiling a voluntary farmland registration program to secure open space for risk reduction and post-disaster restoration from earthquakes: lessons learned from practices in Chukyo and Kinki, Japan

  • Tsuyoshi SawasakiEmail author
  • Shizuka Hashimoto
  • Tomoya Kishioka
Article

Abstract

Because of rapid urbanization, urban agriculture’s capacity to reduce the risks associated with natural disasters has been receiving broad attention. Asian megacities have long been exposed to a high risk of earthquakes, but these cities’ vernacular landscapes—characterized by intricately mixed urban and rural land uses—also have the potential to provide open spaces across cities that can be used to mitigate harmful consequences if they are properly managed and conserved. Some cities in Japan’s metropolitan regions have introduced a voluntary program under which existing farmland can be registered and, once designated, used for purposes of risk reduction and post-disaster recovery. To our knowledge, however, only a few studies have attempted to explore this institution, even though such information would greatly benefit other Asian megacities exposed to earthquake risks. The primary objective of this study was to address the following research questions: (1) What institutional arrangements has the government developed to secure farmland? (2) how is registered farmland managed and conserved? (3) what conditions have facilitated landowners’ registration of farmland? Data were obtained through semi-structured interviews with government officials responsible for the program in the six municipalities that offer the program in the Chukyo and Kinki metropolitan areas. Our analysis revealed that the voluntary programs were often designed to work in conjunction with existing land use zoning and building regulations to ensure that the minimum land areas and road connections essential for post-disaster restoration were secured. We also found that the total registered area was in continual decline because of urban farmland conversions where the registration program was not aligned with land use zoning. Finally, this research confirmed that subsidies, when coupled with direct requests from government officials, fostered landowners’ participation in the program and increased the area registered.

Keywords

Urban farmland Earthquake disaster Japan 

References

  1. Adam-Bradford A, van Veenhuizen R (2016) Role of urban agriculture in disaster and emergencies. In: de Zeeuw H, Drechsel P (eds) Cities and agriculture: developing resilient urban food system (Earthscan Food and Agriculture). HRH The Prince of Wales, Jorhat, pp 387–409Google Scholar
  2. Aubry C, Ramamonjisoa J, Dabat M-H, Rakotoarisoa J, Rakotondraibe J, Rabeharisoa L (2012) Urban agriculture and land use in cities: an approach with the multi-functionality and sustainability concepts in the case of Antananarivo (Madagascar). Land Use Policy 29:429–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barthel S, Isendahl C (2013) Urban gardens, agriculture, and water management: sources of resilience for long-term food security in cities. Ecol Econ 86:224–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burby RJ, Deyle RE, Godschalk DR, Olschansky RB (2000) Creating hazard resilient communities through land-use planning. Nat Hazards 1(2):99–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Buxton M, Haynes R, Mercer D, Butt A (2011) Vulnerability to bushfire risk at Melbourne’s urban fringe: the failure of regulatory land use planning. Geogr Res 49(1):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cabinet Office of Japan (2013a) Long term evaluation of seismic activity of the Nankai Trough Megathrust Earthquake (2nd edn) (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  7. Cabinet Office of Japan (2013b) The damage estimation on the Nankai Trough Megathrust Earthquake. http://iisee.kenken.go.jp/symposium/10thIWSMRR/10.pdf. Accessed 27 Aug 2018
  8. Camps-Calvet M, Langemeyer J, Calvet-Mir L, Gómez-Baggethun E (2016) Ecosystem services provided by urban gardens in Barcelona, Spain: insights for policy and planning. Environ Sci Policy 62:14–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Glavovic BC, Saunders WSA, Becker JS (2010) Land use planning for natural hazards in New Zealand: the setting, barriers, ‘burning issues’ and priority actions. Nat Hazards 54:679–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Home R, Balmer O, Jahrl I, Pfiffner L (2014) Motivations for implementation of ecological compensation areas on Swiss lowland farms. J Rural Stud 34:26–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Howley P (2016) Subsidy streams versus a CAP bond: an assessment of farmers’ preferences. Land Use Policy 51:184–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. James SW, O’Neill PM (2016) Planning for peri-urban agriculture: a geographically-specific, evidence-based approach from Sydney. Aust Geogr 47(2):179–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kato Y, Yokohari M, Brown RD (1997) Integration and visualization of the ecological value of rural landscapes in maintaining the physical environment of Japan. Landsc Urban Plan 39(1):69–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lin BB, Philipott Stacy M, Shalene Jha (2015) The future of urban agriculture and biodiversity-ecosystem services: challenges and next steps. Basic Appl Ecol 16:189–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lu C, Harte D, Bebbington M (1999) A linked stress release model for historical Japanese earthquakes: coupling among major seismic regions. Earth Planets Space 51:907–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lwasa S, Mugagga F, Wahab B, Simon D, Connors J, Griffith C (2014) Urban and peri-urban agriculture and forestry: transcending poverty alleviation to climate change mitigation and adaptation. Urban Clim 7:92–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Madhav GB, Navin R (2015) Urban agriculture and food security: a critique based on an assessment of urban land constraints. Glob Food Secur 4:8–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (2016) Urban agriculture promotion basic plan. http://www.maff.go.jp/j/nousin/kouryu/tosi_nougyo/pdf/kihon_keikaku.pdf. Accessed 6 Sept 2017
  19. Mok HF, Williamson V, Grove J, Burry K, Barker S, Hamilton A (2014) Strawberry fields forever? Urban agriculture in developed countries: a review. Agron Sustain Dev 34(1):21–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Padgham J, Jabbour J, Dietrich K (2015) Managing change and building resilience: a multi-stressor analysis of urban and peri-urban agriculture in Africa and Asia. Urban Clim 12:183–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pons O, Nadal A, Sanyé-Mengual E, Llorach-Massana P, Cuerva E, Sanjuan-Delmàs D, Muñoz P, Oliver-Solà J, Planas C, Rovira MR (2015) Roofs of the future: rooftop greenhouses to improve buildings metabolism. Procedia Eng 123:441–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rich KM, Rich M, Dizyee K (2018) Participatory systems approaches for urban and peri-urban agriculture planning: the role of system dynamics and spatial group model building. Agric Syst 160:110–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sang N, Dramstad WE, Bryn A (2014) Regionality in Norwegian farmland abandonment: inferences from production data. Appl Geogr 55:238–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sioen GB, Sekiyama M, Terada T, Yokohari M (2017) Post-disaster food and nutrition from urban agriculture: a self-sufficiency analysis of Nerima Ward, Tokyo. Int J Environ Res Public Health 14(7):748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sorensen A (2002) The making of urban Japan. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. Sui D, Zeng H (2001) Modeling the dynamics of landscape structure in Asia’s emerging desakota regions: a case study in Shenzhen. Landsc Urban Plan 53:37–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Van Leeuwen E, Nijkamp P, de Noronha Vas T (2010) The multifunctional use of urban greenspace. Int J Agric Sustain 8(1–2):20–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Warren E, Hawkesworth S, Knai C (2015) Investigating the association between urban agriculture and food security, dietary diversity, and nutritional status: a systematic literature review. Food Policy 53:54–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Yokohari M (2006) Agro-activities in the Fringe of Asian Mega-Cities. Keikanseitaigaku (Japanese) 10(2):75–79Google Scholar
  30. Yokohari M, Amati M (2005) Nature in the city, city in the nature: case studies of the restoration of urban nature in Tokyo, Japan and Toronto, Canada. Landsc Ecol Eng 1:53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yokohari M, Brown RD, Takeuchi K (1994) A framework for the conservation of rural ecological landscapes in the urban fringe area in Japan. Landsc Urban Plan 29:103–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Yokohari M, Robert D-B, Kato Y, Moriyama H (1997) Effects of paddy fields on summertime air and surface temperatures in urban fringe areas of Tokyo, Japan. Landsc Urban Plan 38:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Yokohari M, Takeuchi K, Watanabe T, Yokota S (2000) Beyond greenbelts and zoning: a new planning concept for the environment of Asia mega-cities. Landsc Urban Plan 47:159–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhang P, Yang ZX, Gupta HK, Bhatia SC, Shedlock KM (1999) Global seismic hazard assessment program (GSHAP) in continental Asia. Ann Geophys.  https://doi.org/10.4401/ag-3778 Google Scholar
  35. Zhang B, Gao-die Xie, Na Li, Wang S (2015) Effect of urban green space changes on the role of rainwater runoff reduction in Beijing, China. Landsc Urban Plan 140:8–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The International Society of Paddy and Water Environment Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tsuyoshi Sawasaki
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shizuka Hashimoto
    • 2
  • Tomoya Kishioka
    • 3
  1. 1.The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and FisheriesTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Ecosystem StudiesUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Noto Satoyama Satoumi Meister Training ProgramKanazawa UniversitySuzu-shiJapan

Personalised recommendations