Advertisement

Variation in lowland rice yield and its determinants in a rainfed area in Savannakhet Province, Laos

  • Hiroshi IkeuraEmail author
  • Sengthong Phongchanmixay
  • Amphone Chomxaythong
  • Naruo Matsumoto
  • Kensuke Kawamura
  • Laeh Homsengchanh
  • Somphone Inkhamseng
Article

Abstract

Irrigated areas in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Laos) constitute only 12% of the total agricultural land. Most of the lowland rice is cultivated under rainfed conditions. The rice yield in rainfed fields is lower and more unstable than that in irrigated fields. Most of the lowland rice fields in Savannakhet Province, which is the main rice-producing region, cover not only lowlands but also gradual hilly terrain, with sandy soils. The water and nutrient conditions of the lowland rice fields likely differ with location and geological conditions, and rice production may be insufficient in some areas. The objectives of this study are (1) to assess rice yield and water and soil conditions in the rainfed rice fields of Savannakhet Province and (2) to identify the determinants of variation in rice yield. We selected a village with rainfed rice fields as the research site. Sixty plots were set in the rice fields, from the lowland to middle and upper positions of the terrain. The rice grain yield varied from 0.6 to 3.6 t ha−1, averaging 1.9 t ha−1, and the yield in the lower positioned fields was significantly higher than that in the upper positioned fields. Surface water in the observed fields was mostly maintained above ground level throughout the planting period, and the average surface water depth in the lower position fields was deeper than that in the upper and middle position fields. The total carbon (TC), total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium were extremely poor, while the exchangeable calcium (ExCa) and exchangeable magnesium were relatively rich, and the ExCa in the lower positioned fields was higher than that in the upper and middle positioned fields. ExCa was the main determinant of difference in rice grain yield, followed by TC.

Keywords

Rainfed lowland Rice grain yield Surface water depth Soil fertility Determinant 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was conducted as the part of the collaborative research project of Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), National Agriculture and Forestry Research Institute and National University of Laos funded by JIRCAS. We are grateful for the helpful assistance of Outhoumpone District Agriculture and Forestry Office, Savannakhet Province, Department of Meteorology and Hydrology, Laos, and all the residents of K village for working with us.

References

  1. Dobermann A, Fairhurst TH (2002) Rice straw management. Better Crops Int 16:7–11Google Scholar
  2. FAO (2018) FAOSTAT. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC. Accessed 24 July 2018
  3. Fukai S, Cooper M (1995) Development of drought-resistant cultivar using physio-morphological traits in rice. Field Crop Res 40:67–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fukai S, Sittisuang P, Chanphangsay S (1998) Increasing production of rainfed lowland rice in drought prone environment—a case study in Thailand and Laos. Plant Prod Sci 1(1):75–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Homma K, Horie T, Shiraiwa T, Supapoj N, Matsumoto N, Kabaki N (2003) Toposequential variation in soil fertility and rice productivity of rainfed lowland paddy fields in mini-watershed (Nong) in Northeast Thailand. Plant Prod Sci 6(2):147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ikeura H, Phongchanmixay S, Phonsangone S, Xaypanya P, Inkhamseng S, Soubat S (2016) Factors affecting differences in the rainy season rice yield in a lowland area of a mountainous village in Lao PDR. Paddy Water Environ 14(2):343–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Inthapanya P, Sipaseuth Sihavong P, Sihathep V, Chanphengsay M, Fukai S, Basnayake J (2000) Genotypic performance under fertilized and non-fertilized conditions in rainfed lowland rice. Field Crop Res 65:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Inthavong T, Fukai S, Tsubo M (2011) Spatial variations in water availability, soil fertility and grain yield in rainfed lowland rice: a case study from Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR. Plant Prod Sci 14(2):184–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lathvilayvong P, Schiller JM, Phommasack T and Chanphengsay M (1994) Soil fertility management in the rainfed lowland environment of the Lao PDR, soil organic matter for sustainable agriculture in Asia, ACIAR Proceedings No. 56, Proceedings of workshop, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand, 24–26 August 1994, pp 91–97Google Scholar
  10. Linquist B, Sengxua P (2001) Nutrient management in rainfed lowland rice in the Lao PDR. Int Rice Res Inst 14–18(51–53):60–66Google Scholar
  11. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Laos (2015) Agriculture Development Strategy to 2025 and Vision to the Year 2030, pp 17–20Google Scholar
  12. Murata T, Tanaka H, Sakaguch K, Asaka D, Hamada R (1997a) The influence on microbial biomass, available soil N and neutral sugar composition induced by wheat straw and manure application. Jpn J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 68:249–256 (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  13. Murata T, Tanaka H, Sakaguch K, Roppongi K, Hamada R (1997b) The influence on microbial biomass, available soil N and neutral sugar composition induced by rice straw compost and fertilizer application in alluvial upland soil. Jpn J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 68:257–264 (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  14. R Core Team (2016) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, www.R-project.org/
  15. Tsubo M, Fukai S, Basnayake J, Tuong TP, Bouman B, Harnpichitvitaya D (2005) Estimating percolation and lateral water flow on sloping land in rainfed lowland rice ecosystem. Plant Prod Sci 8(3):354–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Tsubo M, Basnayake J, Fukai S, Sihathep V, Siyavong P, Chanpahegsay M (2006) Toposequential effects on water balance and productivity in rainfed lowland rice ecosystem in Southern Laos. Field Crop Res 97:209–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Tuong TP, Bouman BAM, Mortimer M (2005) More rice, more water—integrated approaches for increasing water productivity in irrigated rice-based system in Asia. Plant Prod Sci 8:231–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Wade LJ, Fukai S, Samson BK, Ali A, Mazid MA (1999) Rainfed lowland rice: physical environment and cultivar requirements. Field Crop Res 64:3–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. WFP (2007) Lao PDR: Comprehensive food security and vulnerability analysis. World Food Program, Vientiane: 34Google Scholar
  20. Wonprasaid S, Khunthasuvon S, Sittisuang P, Fukai S (1996) Performance of contrasting rice cultivars selected for rainfed lowland conditions in relation to soil fertility and water availability. Field Crop Res 47:267–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The International Society of Paddy and Water Environment Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiroshi Ikeura
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sengthong Phongchanmixay
    • 2
  • Amphone Chomxaythong
    • 3
  • Naruo Matsumoto
    • 1
  • Kensuke Kawamura
    • 1
  • Laeh Homsengchanh
    • 2
  • Somphone Inkhamseng
    • 3
  1. 1.Japan International Research Center for Agricultural SciencesTsukubaJapan
  2. 2.Rice Research Center, National Agriculture and Forestry Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry LaosVientiane CapitalLao People’s Democratic Republic
  3. 3.Faculty of Water ResourcesNational University of LaosVientiane CapitalLao People’s Democratic Republic

Personalised recommendations