Increased N fertilizer input enhances CH4 and N2O emissions from soil amended with low amount of milk vetch residues

  • Xiao Sun
  • Yeye Che
  • Yan XiaoEmail author


The combined use of chemical N fertilizer and crop residue could influence greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture. A pot experiment was performed to examine the combination of milk vetch residue and chemical N fertilizer and the amount of total N input on CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from paddy soils. Neither fertilizer combination nor fertilizer amount influenced cumulative CO2 emissions. Cumulative CH4 emissions increased with increasing proportion of milk vetch residues. Nevertheless, with low milk vetch residue application rate, increased chemical N fertilizer input significantly enhanced CH4 emissions. Cumulative N2O emissions from soils amended with low and moderate amount of milk vetch residues were promoted by increased N fertilizer input. By contrast, N2O emissions from soils without milk vetch residue application or amended with high milk vetch residues were not influenced by increment of N fertilizer. It was concluded that both CH4 and N2O emissions were promoted by increased N fertilizer, which might be due to the microbial activity and N immobilization in soils amended with different amounts of milk vetch residues.


Green manure Mineral N fertilizer GHG Methane Carbon dioxide Nitrous oxide 



This research was supported by the earmarked fund for China Agriculture Research System (CARS-34), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (KYZ201756) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20171378).


  1. Abalos D, Sanz-Cobena A, Garcia-Torres L, van Groenigen JW, Vallejo A (2013) Role of maize stover incorporation on nitrogen oxide emissions in a non-irrigated Mediterranean barley field. Plant Soil 364:357–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akiyama H, Tsuruta H (2003) Nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and nitrogen dioxide fluxes from soils after manure and urea application. J Environ Qual 32:423–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baggs EM, Rees RM, Smith KA, Vinten AJA (2000) Nitrous oxide emission from soils after incorporating crop residues. Soil Use Manag 16:82–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ball BC, McTaggart IP, Scott A (2004) Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from soil under silage production by use of organic manures or slow-release fertilizer. Soil Use Manag 20:287–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Begum N, Guppy C, Herridge D, Schwenke G (2014) Influence of source and quality of plant residues on emissions of N2O and CO2 from a fertile, acidic Black Vertisol. Biol Fertil Soils 50:499–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cai ZC, Shan YH, Xu H (2007) Effects of nitrogen fertilization on CH4 emissions from rice fields. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 53:353–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chirinda N, Olesen JE, Porter JR, Schjønning P (2010) Soil properties, crop production and greenhouse gas emissions from organic and inorganic fertilizer-based arable cropping systems. Agric Ecosyst Environ 139:584–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Christensen TR, Ekberg A, Strom L, Mastepanov M, Panikov N, Oquist M, Svensson BH, Nykanen H, Martikainen PJ, Oskarsson H (2003) Factors controlling large scale variations in methane emissions from wetlands. Geophys Res Lett 30:1414–1419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ding W, Luo J, Li J, Yu H, Fan J, Liu D (2013) Effect of long-term compost and inorganic fertilizer application on background N2O and fertilizer-induced N2O emissions from an intensively cultivated soil. Sci Total Environ 465:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Galloway JN, Townsend AR, Erisman JW, Bekunda M, Cai Z, Freney JR, Martinelli LA, Seitzinger SP, Sutton MA (2008) Transformation of the nitrogen cycle: recent trends, questions, and potential solutions. Science 320:889–892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gautam DP, Rahman S, Borhan MS, Engel C (2016) The effect of feeding high fat diet to beef cattle on manure composition and gaseous emission from a feedlot pen surface. J Anim Sci Technol 58:22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gentile R, Vanlauwe B, van Kessel C, Six J (2009) Managing N availability and losses by combining fertilizer-N with different quality residues in Kenya. Agric Ecosyst Environ 131:308–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gillam KM, Zebarth BJ, Burton DL (2008) Nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification and the partitioning of gaseous losses as affected by nitrate and carbon addition and soil aeration. Can J Soil Sci 88:133–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gong W, Yan X, Wang J, Hu T, Gong Y (2009) Long-term manure and fertilizer effects on soil organic matter fractions and microbes under a wheat-maize cropping system in northern China. Geoderma 149:318–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hadas A, Kautsky L, Goek M, Kara EE (2004) Rates of decomposition of plant residues and available nitrogen in soil, related to residue composition through simulation of carbon and nitrogen turnover. Soil Biol Biochem 36:255–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hanson PJ, Edwards NT, Garten CT, Andrews JA (2000) Separating root and soil microbial contributions to soil respiration: a review of methods and observations. Biogeochemistry 48:115–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hütsch BW, Mengel K, Russell P (1996) CH4 oxidation in two temperate arable soils as affected by nitrate and ammonium application. Biol Fertil Soils 23:86–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007—the physical science basis contribution of Working Group I to the fourth assessment report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Kluber HD, Conrad R (1998) Inhibitory effects of nitrate, nitrite, NO and N2O on methanogenesis by Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanobacterium bryantii. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 25:331–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Le Mer J, Roger P (2001) Production, oxidation, emission and consumption of methane by soils: a review. Eur J Soil Biol 37:25–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li X, Sørensen P, Olesen JE, Petersen SO (2016) Evidence for denitrification as main source of N2O emission from residue-amended soil. Soil Biol Biochem 92:153–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lu YH, Wassmann R, Neue HU, Huang CY (2000) Dynamics of dissolved organic carbon and methane emissions in a flooded rice soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:2011–2017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Meijide A, Diez JA, Sanchez-Martin L, Lopez-Fernandez S, Vallejo A (2007) Nitrogen oxide emissions from an irrigated maize crop amended with treated pig slurries and composts in a Mediterranean climate. Agric Ecosyst Environ 121:383–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Miller MN, Zebarth BJ, Dandie CE, Burton DL, Goyer C, Trevors JT (2008) Crop residue influence on denitrification, N2O emissions and denitrifier community abundance in soil. Soil Biol Biochem 40:2553–2562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Muhammad W, Vaughan SM, Dalal RC, Menzies NW (2011) Crop residues and fertilizer nitrogen influence residue decomposition and nitrous oxide emission from a Vertisol. Biol Fertil Soils 47:15–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Peng Q, Qi YC, Dong YS, Xiao SS, He YT (2011) Soil nitrous oxide emissions from a typical semiarid temperate steppe in inner Mongolia: effects of mineral nitrogen fertilizer levels and forms. Plant Soil 342:345–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ren FL, Zhang XB, Liu J, Sun N, Wu LH, Li ZF, Xu MG (2017) A synthetic analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from manure amended agricultural soils in China. Sci Rep 7:13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rochette P, Angers DA, Chantigny MH, Gagnon B, Bertrand N (2008) N2O fluxes in soils of contrasting textures fertilized with liquid and solid dairy cattle manures. Can J Soil Sci 88:175–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sanz-Cobena A, Garcia-Marco S, Quemada M, Gabriel JL, Almendros P, Vallejo A (2014) Do cover crops enhance N2O, CO2 or CH4 emissions from soil in Mediterranean arable systems? Sci Total Environ 466:164–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sarkodie-Addo J, Lee HC, Baggs EM (2003) Nitrous oxide emissions after application of inorganic fertilizer and incorporation of green manure residues. Soil Use Manag 19:331–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Schimel J (2000) Rice, microbes and methane. Nature 403(375):377Google Scholar
  32. Tilman D, Cassman KG, Matson PA, Naylor R, Polasky S (2002) Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature 418:671–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Vallejo A, Skiba UM, Garcia-Torres L, Arce A, Lopez-Fernandez S, Sanchez-Martin L (2006) Nitrogen oxides emission from soils bearing a potato crop as influenced by fertilization with treated pig slurries and composts. Soil Biol Biochem 38:2782–2793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang WJ, Baldocka JA, Dalala RC, Moody PW (2004) Decomposition dynamics of plant materials in relation to nitrogen availability and biochemistry determined by NMR and wet-chemical analysis. Soil Biol Biochem 36:2045–2058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Weier KL, Doran JW, Power JF, Walters DT (1993) Denitrification and the dinitrogen nitrous-oxide ratio as affected by soil-water, available carbon, and nitrate. Soil Sci Soc Am J 57:66–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Xiao Y (2017) Greenhouse gas emissions from paddy soils respond to different crop root residues and n fertilizer types. Water Air Soil Pollut 228:6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Xiao Y, Zhang F, Li Y, Li T, Che Y, Deng S (2018) Influence of winter crop residue and nitrogen form on greenhouse gas emissions from acidic paddy soil. Eur J Soil Biol 85:23–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhao X, Wang S, Xing G (2015) Maintaining rice yield and reducing N pollution by substituting winter legume for wheat in a heavily-fertilized rice-based cropping system of southeast China. Agric Ecosyst Environ 202:79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhou MH, Zhu B, Bruggemann N, Bergmann J, Wang YQ, Butterbach-Bahl K (2014) N2O and CH4 Emissions, and NO3 leaching on a crop-yield basis from a subtropical rain-fed wheat-maize rotation in response to different types of nitrogen fertilizer. Ecosystems 17:286–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhou M, Zhu B, Brüggemann N, Wang X, Zheng X, Butterbach-Bahl K (2015) Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from a subtropical rice–rapeseed rotation system in China: a 3-year field case study. Agric Ecosyst Environ 212:297–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhou M, Butterbach-Bahl K, Vereecken H, Brueggemann N (2017a) A meta-analysis of soil salinization effects on nitrogen pools, cycles and fluxes in coastal ecosystems. Glob Change Biol 23:1338–1352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhou M, Zhu B, Wang S, Zhu X, Vereecken H, Brüggemann N (2017b) Stimulation of N2O emission by manure application to agricultural soils may largely offset carbon benefits: a global meta-analysis. Glob Change Biol 23:4068–4083CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The International Society of Paddy and Water Environment Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Agro-grassland ScienceNanjing Agricultural UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations