In the 2010s, a sporadic garlic disease in Hokkaido and Kagawa, Japan caused browning and withering of leaves, collapse of aboveground parts, and discoloration of papery sheathing leaves of bulbs and cloves, consistent with the description of spring rot disease. However, the typical rot of storage leaves of cloves was not found. From diseased tissues, bacteria that formed pale-yellow colonies were isolated and demonstrated to be pathogenic on garlic after inoculation and reisolation of the isolates. The gram-negative, aerobic rods with one or two polar flagella were identified as Pseudomonas salomonii based on biochemical and physiological characterizations, PCR assays, phylogenetic analyses, and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report of P. salomonii in Japan. P. salomonii was originally described in France as the causal agent of café au lait disease of garlic, which can be considered as “a type of spring rot disease that does not rot storage leaves.” Therefore, we are treating the disease caused by P. salomonii in Hokkaido and Kagawa as “spring rot disease”.
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We express our deep appreciation to Ms. C. Aoyagi and Ms. H. Nakajima (Genetic Resources Center, NARO) for their daily technical assistance. We also thank Mr. S. Kimata (Kitami Agricultural Experiment Station, Hokkaido Research Organization), Mr. J. Sasaki (Ornamental Plants and Vegetables Research Center, Hokkaido Research Organization) and Ms. C. Hirai (Kagawa Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station) for their help with this work.
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The nucleotide sequence data reported are available in the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases under the accession numbers LC486820– LC486879.
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Supplementary Figure 1 Symptoms on garlic plants after inoculation with the 14 garlic isolates (Table 1). a Inoculated leaves (second leaves) wilted (2 days after inoculation with MAFF 212397). b Inoculated leaves (second leaves) browned and died, and first leaves starting to yellow (5 days after inoculation with MAFF 212397). c Twenty-one days after inoculation with MAFF 212401 (left) and MAFF 212400 (middle), aboveground parts wilted. Negative control (sterile distilled water) showed no influence of inoculation (right). d Aboveground parts sometimes withered and died (21 days after inoculation with MAFF 212399) (PPTX 7296 kb)
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Sawada, H., Horita, H., Nishimura, F. et al. Pseudomonas salomonii, another causal agent of garlic spring rot in Japan. J Gen Plant Pathol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10327-020-00909-3
- Pseudomonas salomonii
- Allium sativum
- Spring rot
- Café au lait disease
- MALDI biotyper