Journal of General Plant Pathology

, Volume 85, Issue 6, pp 468–470 | Cite as

Plant interactions with parasitic and beneficial Colletotrichum fungi under changing environmental conditions

  • Kei HirumaEmail author


Plants are naturally associated with a great diversity of fungi. Plant-colonizing fungi are considered to have evolved from saprotrophic fungi via the acquisition of a capacity to colonize plant tissues and to obtain nutrients from the host. A transition from saprotrophic to plant-associated life forms provided a new niche without high competition among fungi. However, once fungi began to associate with plants, they had to contend with plant defense responses that aim to detect and eliminate anything that is “non-self”. To overcome or evade plant defense responses, parasitic fungi had to develop diverse infection strategies. Instead of a parasitic habit, some fungi had to adopt a mutualistic habit that provided benefits to hosts in exchange for benefits from the hosts. It is crucial to note that the degree of plant responses to such parasitic or mutualist fungi would vary depending on the environmental and host conditions (Hiruma et al. 2018). However, since most studies...



I am deeply grateful to Dr. Yoshitaka Takano and Dr. Tetsuro Okuno, Dr. Kazuyuki Mise and Dr. Masanori Kaido at Kyoto University, Dr. Paul Schulze-Lefert at Max Planck Institute, Dr. Richard O’Connell at INRA, and Dr. Yusuke Saijo at NAIST for their valuable suggestions, support, and warm encouragement. I also appreciate my collaborators for their help and encouragement. I am supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Sciences (JSPS) KAKENHI Grant (18H04822), the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) Grant (JPMJPR16Q7).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author has no conflict of interest to declare.

Human and animal rights statement

This article does not contain any experiments performed with human participants or animals.


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Copyright information

© The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesNara Institute of Science and TechnologyNaraJapan
  2. 2.PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology AgencyKawaguchiJapan

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