Genetic diversity of Phytophthora nicotianae reveals pathogen transmission mode in Japan
- 153 Downloads
Phytophthora nicotianae is an important soil-borne pathogen in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. To clarify the genetic diversity of P. nicotianae and to understand its mode of transmission in Japan, we developed six new microsatellites markers, consisting of six loci and 39 alleles. In a phylogenetic analysis, 138 isolates, including 125 from Japan and 13 from overseas, were shown to differ, even though some were collected from the same host and location, suggesting that there is no geographic or host plant clustering. Population structure analysis also revealed a highly admixed population of P. nicotianae in Japan. Molecular analysis suggested high variance between individuals but no significant differences between populations. Both A1 and A2 mating types were present in the same population, which could be due to high levels of variance between individuals in the population. The absence of geographical structure between populations also suggests that the pathogen is able to migrate from one population to another. We propose that this phenomenon could result from human activities related to the transport of plant and associated agricultural materials.
KeywordsDiversity Microsatellite Phytophthora nicotianae Population genetics Population structure
The authors acknowledge Mr. Seiji Uematsu, Dr. Hideki Watanabe, Mr. Minoru Inada, Dr. Yuji Kajitani for providing P. nicotianae isolates used in this study.
- Falush D, Stephens M, Pritchard JK (2003) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data: linked loci and correlated allele frequencies. Genetics 164:1567–1587Google Scholar
- Nakamura H, Matsuzaki M (1994) Occurrence of Phytophthora rot of limonium caused by Phytophthora nicotianae in Saga Prefecture (Abstract in Japanese). Ann Phytopathol Soc Jpn 60:737Google Scholar
- Panabières F, Ali GS, Allagui MB, Dalio RJD, Gudmestad NC, Kuhn ML, Guha Roy S, Schena L, Zampounis A (2016) Phytophthora nicotianae diseases worldwide: new knowledge of a long-recognised pathogen. Phytopathol Mediterr 55:20–40Google Scholar
- Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P (2000) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 7:574–578Google Scholar
- Robideau GP, De Cock AW, Coffey MD, Voglmayr H, Brouwer H, Bala K, Chitty DW, Désaulniers N, Eggertson QA, Gachon CM, Hu CH, Küpper FC, Rintoul TL, Sarhan E, Verstappen EC, Zhang Y, Bonants PJ, Ristaino JB, Lévesque CA (2011) DNA barcoding of oomycetes with cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and internal transcribed spacer. Mol Ecol Resour 11:1002–1011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Takeuchi J, Horie H (2000) First report of Phytophthora rot of garden pea and Albuca nelsonii in Japan (in Japanese with English summary). Annu Rept Kanto-Tosan Plant Prot Soc 47:45–48Google Scholar
- Takeuchi T, Suzuki T (2010) Phytophthora blight (Phytophthora nicotianae) on hydroponically grown Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) and controlling damage with the nutrient solution (in Japanese with English summary). Bull Chiba Agric Res Cent 2:1–6Google Scholar
- Takeuchi J, Horie H, Eimori K (2004) First report of Phytophthora rot of New Zealand spinach in Japan (in Japanese with English summary). Annu Rept Kanto-Tosan Plant Prot Soc 51:55–57Google Scholar
- Tashiro N, Uematsu S, Matsuzaki M, Ide Y, Etoh T (2002) Phytophthora palmivora, P. citrophthora and P. nicotianae as causal agents of citrus brown rot (Abstract in Japanese). Jpn J Phytopathol 68:189Google Scholar
- Yokota S, Oomori T, Nao M, Watanabe T, Kitamoto H (2013) Involvement of Phytophthora rot caused by Phytophthora nicotianae in growth failure of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) in replanted fields in Ehime Prefecture. Soil Microorg 67:77–82Google Scholar