Journal of General Plant Pathology

, Volume 85, Issue 3, pp 189–200 | Cite as

Genetic diversity of Phytophthora nicotianae reveals pathogen transmission mode in Japan

  • Auliana AfandiEmail author
  • Ayaka Hieno
  • Arif Wibowo
  • Siti Subandiyah
  • Afandi
  • Haruhisha Suga
  • Koji Tsuchida
  • Koji Kageyama
Fungal Diseases


Phytophthora nicotianae is an important soil-borne pathogen in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. To clarify the genetic diversity of P. nicotianae and to understand its mode of transmission in Japan, we developed six new microsatellites markers, consisting of six loci and 39 alleles. In a phylogenetic analysis, 138 isolates, including 125 from Japan and 13 from overseas, were shown to differ, even though some were collected from the same host and location, suggesting that there is no geographic or host plant clustering. Population structure analysis also revealed a highly admixed population of P. nicotianae in Japan. Molecular analysis suggested high variance between individuals but no significant differences between populations. Both A1 and A2 mating types were present in the same population, which could be due to high levels of variance between individuals in the population. The absence of geographical structure between populations also suggests that the pathogen is able to migrate from one population to another. We propose that this phenomenon could result from human activities related to the transport of plant and associated agricultural materials.


Diversity Microsatellite Phytophthora nicotianae Population genetics Population structure 



The authors acknowledge Mr. Seiji Uematsu, Dr. Hideki Watanabe, Mr. Minoru Inada, Dr. Yuji Kajitani for providing P. nicotianae isolates used in this study.

Supplementary material

10327_2018_836_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (22 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 21 KB)


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Copyright information

© The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The United Graduate School of Agricultural ScienceGifu UniversityGifuJapan
  2. 2.River Basin Research CenterGifu UniversityGifuJapan
  3. 3.Faculty of AgricultureUniversitas Gadjah MadaYogyakartaIndonesia
  4. 4.Faculty of AgricultureUniversitas LampungBandar LampungIndonesia
  5. 5.Life Science Research CenterGifu UniversityGifuJapan
  6. 6.Faculty of Applied Biological ScienceGifu UniversityGifuJapan
  7. 7.Biotechnology Research CenterUniversitas Gadjah MadaYogyakartaIndonesia

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