Environmental Chemistry Letters

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 1801–1820 | Cite as

Role of microbes, metabolites and effector compounds in host–microbiota interaction: a pharmacological outlook

  • Bharat BhushanEmail author
  • Brij Pal SinghEmail author
  • Kamna Saini
  • Mamta Kumari
  • Sudhir Kumar Tomar
  • Vijendra Mishra


Microbial cells react with intestinal surfaces and produce enzymes and metabolites that influence human health, host metabolism and immunity. Gut microbiota and probiotics also influence host physiology. Here, we review 1) the role of host–microbiota composition and microbial enzymes in human well-being and in human metabolism for the degradation of indigestible dietary components; 2) the effects of gut microbiota on drug metabolism; 3) the roles of probiotic composition, metabolites, e.g. vitamins, bacteriocins, acids and bioactive peptides, and effector compounds, e.g. polysaccharides, outer membrane proteins, pili, muropeptides and CpG-rich DNA, for clinical outcomes; and 4) a new perspective of microbial global positioning system (mGPS) for segregation of human disease phenotypes on the basis of their microbiota.


Microbiota Probiotics Metabolites Effector molecules Pharmacology Drug metabolism 



This work was the result of two financial grants from Department of Science and Technology (DST), India, for individual research projects to be implemented at BAS department, NIFTEM: (1) BB acknowledges the funding from Science and Engineering Research Board under DST-SERB NPDF scheme (financial sanction # PDF/2018/003949), and (2) MK acknowledges the financial approval from DST-KIRAN division under WOS-A scheme [financial approval # SR/WOS-A/CS-41/2017 (G)].

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Institute of Food Technology Entrepreneurship and ManagementSonipatIndia
  2. 2.RK UniversityRajkotIndia
  3. 3.ICAR-National Dairy Research InstituteKarnalIndia

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