Environmental Chemistry Letters

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 1707–1726 | Cite as

Treatment of fluoride-contaminated water. A review

  • P. Senthil KumarEmail author
  • S. Suganya
  • S. Srinivas
  • S. Priyadharshini
  • M. Karthika
  • R. Karishma Sri
  • V. Swetha
  • Mu. NaushadEmail author
  • Eric Lichtfouse


Delivering the right amount of fluoride to drinking water protects the teeth from decay and reduces the risk of cavities. Nonetheless, fluorosis has been diagnosed as the result of excessive exposure of fluoride, which induces brain impairment, muscle disorders and hyperactivity. Fluoride ingestion during the formation of the tooth enamel is the main reason for fluorosis, which is characterized by hypomineralization. Dissolution of fluoride-containing rock minerals contributes to naturally occurring fluoride contamination in water. The intentional addition of fluoride to water in dental care is alarming in growing countries such as India. This article reviews the origin of fluoride, the analysis of fluoride derivatives and the technologies to remove fluoride from water. The manuscript presents adsorption techniques for fluoride removal, using different types of adsorbents. The adsorption capacities of adsorbents under various conditions, such as contaminant concentration, adsorbent dosage, time, pH and temperature, are presented. Adsorbent types include alumina, zeolites, organic waste, shell-based and carbon-based including graphite and carbon nanotubes. Defluoridation of water using clays and muds, modified activated alumina, chitosan derivatives and composites are also discussed.


Defluoridation Zeolite Adsorption Reverse osmosis Activated carbon 



  1. Adhikari SK, Tipnis UK, Harkare WP, Govindan KP (1989) Defluoridation during desalination of brackish water by electrodialysis. Desalination 71:301–312. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahamad T, Naushad M, Al-Maswari BM et al (2017) Synthesis of a recyclable mesoporous nanocomposite for efficient removal of toxic Hg2+ from aqueous medium. J Ind Eng Chem 53:268–275. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahamad KU, Mahanta A, Ahmed S (2019) Removal of fluoride from groundwater by adsorption onto brick powder–alum–calcium-infused adsorbent. Adv Waste Manag. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmad R, Kumar R (2010) Adsorptive removal of congo red dye from aqueous solution using bael shell carbon. Appl Surf Sci 257:1628–1633. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alagumuthu G, Rajan M (2010) Kinetic and equilibrium studies on fluoride removal by zirconium(IV)-impregnated groundnut shell carbon. Hem Ind 64:295–304. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alfredo KA, Lawler DF, Katz LE (2014) Fluoride contamination in the Bongo District of Ghana, West Africa: geogenic contamination and cultural complexities. Water Int 39:486–503. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Al-Othman ZA, Ali R, Naushad M (2012) Hexavalent chromium removal from aqueous medium by activated carbon prepared from peanut shell: adsorption kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies. Chem Eng J 184:238–247. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alqadami AA, Naushad M, Abdalla MA et al (2016) Adsorptive removal of toxic dye using Fe3O4–TSC nanocomposite: equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies. J Chem Eng Data 61:3806–3813. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Alqadami AA, Naushad M, Alothman ZA, Ghfar AA (2017a) Novel metal-organic framework (MOF) based composite material for the sequestration of U(VI) and Th(IV) metal ions from aqueous environment. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:36026–36037. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Alqadami AA, Naushad M, Abdalla MA et al (2017b) Efficient removal of toxic metal ions from wastewater using a recyclable nanocomposite: a study of adsorption parameters and interaction mechanism. J Clean Prod. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Amalraj A, Pius A (2017) Removal of fluoride from drinking water using aluminum hydroxide coated activated carbon prepared from bark of Morindatinctoria. Appl Water Sci 7:2653–2665. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. American Public Health Association (1992) Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater, 18th ed., 40 CFR 136.3(a), USAGoogle Scholar
  13. Annouar S, Mountadar M, Soufiane A, Sahli MA (2004) Defluoridation of underground water by adsorption on the chitosan and by electrodialysis. Desalination. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ayoob S, Gupta AK, Bhakat PB, Bhat VT (2008) Investigations on the kinetics and mechanisms of sorptive removal of fluoride from water using alumina cement granules. Chem Eng J 140:6–14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Banasiak LJ, Kruttschnitt TW, Schäfer AI (2007) Desalination using electrodialysis as a function of voltage and salt concentration. Desalination 205:38–46. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bansiwal A, Pillewan P, Biniwale RB, Rayalu SS (2010) Copper oxide incorporated mesoporous alumina for defluoridation of drinking water. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 129:54–61. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Barathi M, Santhana Krishna Kumar A, Rajesh N (2013) Efficacy of novel Al–Zr impregnated cellulose adsorbent prepared using microwave irradiation for the facile defluoridation of water. J Environ Chem Eng 1:1325–1335. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Barbier O, Arreola-Mendoza L, Del Razo LM (2010) Molecular mechanisms of fluoride toxicity. Chem Biol Interact 188:319–333. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bertolacini RJ, Barney JE (1958) Ultraviolet spectrophotometric determination of sulfate, chloride, and fluoride with chloranilic acid. Anal Chem 30:202–205. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bhargava S, Killedar DJ (1991) Batch studies of water defluoridation using fishbone charcoal. Water Environ Fed 63:848–858Google Scholar
  21. Bhaumik R, Mondal NK, Chattoraj S (2017) An optimization study for defluoridation from synthetic fluoride solution using scale of Indian major carp Catla (Catlacatla): an unconventional biosorbent. J Fluor Chem 195:57–69. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bia G, De Pauli CP, Borgnino L (2012) The role of Fe(III) modified montmorillonite on fluoride mobility: adsorption experiments and competition with phosphate. J Environ Manag 100:1–9. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Biswas K, Saha SK, Ghosh UC (2007) Adsorption of fluoride from aqueous solution by a synthetic iron(III)–aluminum(III) mixed oxide. Ind Eng Chem Res 46:5346–5356. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bouhidel K-E, Rumeau M (2000) Comparison of the electrodialytic properties on NiSO4 and NiCl2: influence of the salt nature in electrodialysis. Desalination 132:195–197. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Brownley FI, Howle CW (1960) Spectrophotometric determination of fluoride in water. Anal Chem 32:1330–1332. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bucher JR, Hejtmancik MR, Toft JD (1991) National Toxicology Program’s rodent carcinogenicity studies with sodium fluoride. Int J Cancer 48:733–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bulusu KR, Sundaresan BB, Pathak BN, Nawlakhe WG, Kulkarni DN, Thergaonkar VP (1979) Fluorides in water, DE fluoridation methods and their limitation. J Inst Eng India 60:1–25Google Scholar
  28. Cao MZ (2014) Treatment of high fluorine water by zeolite. Appl Mech Mater 685:468–472. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chaturvedi AK, Yadava KP, Pathak KC, Singh VN (2001) Defluoridation of water by adsorption on fly-ash. Appl Geochem 16:531–539. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chen D, Luque de Castro MD, Valcárcel M (1990) Fluorimetric sensor for the determination of fluoride at the nanograms per millilitre level. Anal Chim Acta 234:345–352. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chen N, Zhang Z, Feng C (2010) Fluoride removal from water by granular ceramic adsorption. J Colloid Interface Sci 348:579–584. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chen N, Zhang Z, Feng C (2011) Preparation and characterization of porous granular ceramic containing dispersed aluminum and iron oxides as adsorbents for fluoride removal from aqueous solution. J Hazard Mater 186:863–868. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chen L, Zhang K-S, He JY (2016) Enhanced fluoride removal from water by sulfate-doped hydroxyapatite hierarchical hollow microspheres. Chem Eng J 285:616–624. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chiba K, Yoshida K, Tanabe K (1982) Determination of ultratrace levels of fluorine in water and urine samples by a gas chromatographic/atmospheric pressure helium microwave induced plasma emission spectrometric system. Anal Chem 54:761–764. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Chubar N (2010) Physico-chemical treatment of micropollutants: adsorption and ion exchange. In: Virkutyte J, Varma RS, Jegatheesan V (eds) Treatment of micropollutants in water and wastewater. IWA publishing, London, pp 165–203Google Scholar
  36. Dahi E, Mtalo F, Njau B, Bregnhj H (1996) Defluoridation using the Nalgonda technique in Tanzania The Nalgonda technique. In: 22nd WEDC conference, pp 266–268Google Scholar
  37. Daneshvar E, Vazirzadeh A, Niazi A et al (2017) Desorption of methylene blue dye from brown macroalga: effects of operating parameters, isotherm study and kinetic modeling. J Clean Prod 152:443–453. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dayananda D, Sarva VR, Prasad SV (2014) Preparation of CaO loaded mesoporous Al2O3: efficient adsorbent for fluoride removal from water. Chem Eng J 248:430–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dhanasekaran P, Satya Sai PM, Gnanasekar KI (2017) Fixed bed adsorption of fluoride by Artocarpus hirsutus based adsorbent. J Fluorine Chem 195:37–46. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dhillon A, Nehra S, Kumar D (2017) Dual adsorption behaviour of fluoride from drinking water on Ca-Zn(OH)2CO3 adsorbent. Surf Interfaces 6:154–161. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Díaz-Nava C, Olguín MT, Solache-Ríos M (2002) Water defluoridation by mexican heulandite–clinoptilolite. Sep Sci Technol 37:3109–3128. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ekka B, Dhaka RS, Patel RK, Dash P (2017) Fluoride removal in waters using ionic liquid-functionalized alumina as a novel adsorbent. J Clean Prod 151:303–318. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. El Jaoudi R, Mamouch F, El Cadi MA et al (2012) Determination of fluoride in tap water in Morocco using a direct electrochemical method. Bull Environ ContamToxicol 89:390–394. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Eom D, Prezzi D, Rim KT et al (2009) Structure and electronic properties of graphene nanoislands on CO(0001). Nano Lett 9:2844–2848. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fan X, Parker DJ, Smith MD (2003) Adsorption kinetics of fluoride on low cost materials. Water Res 37:4929–4937. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fawell J, Bailey K, Chilton J, Dahi E, Fewtrell L, Magara Y (2004) Fluoride in drinking-water. World Health Organization, Geneva, pp 1–144Google Scholar
  47. Fucsko J, Toth K, Pungor E (1987) Application of ion-selective electrodes in environmental analysis: determination of acid and fluoride concentrations in rainwater with a flow-injection system. Anal Chim Acta 194:163. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ganvir V, Das K (2011) Removal of fluoride from drinking water using aluminum hydroxide coated rice husk ash. J Hazard Mater 185:1287–1294. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gao W, Majumder M, Alemany LB et al (2011) Engineered graphite oxide materials for application in water purification. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 3:1821–1826. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. García-Sánchez JJ, Solache-Ríos M, Martínez-Miranda V, Solís Morelos C (2013) Removal of fluoride ions from drinking water and fluoride solutions by aluminum modified iron oxides in a column system. J Colloid Interface Sci 407:410–415. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gärtner RS, Wilhelm FG, Witkamp GJ, Wessling M (2005) Regeneration of mixed solvent by electrodialysis: selective removal of chloride and sulfate. J Memb Sci 250:113–133. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Genç-Fuhrman H, Tjell JC, McConchie D (2004) Adsorption of arsenic from water using activated neutralized red mud. Environ Sci Technol 38:2428–2434. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. GerenteC Lee VKC, Cloirec PL (2007) Application of chitosan for the removal of metals from wastewaters by adsorption mechanisms and models. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 37(1):41–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ghorai S, Pant KK (2004) Investigations on the column performance of fluoride adsorption by activated alumina in a fixed-bed. Chem Eng J 98:165–173. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ghorai S, Pant KK (2005) Equilibrium, kinetics and breakthrough studies for adsorption of fluoride on activated alumina. Sep Purif Technol 42:265–271. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Grace L, Chen C, Seung-Tae Y (2010) Enhanced adsorptive removal of fluoride using mesoporous alumina. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 127(1):152–156Google Scholar
  57. Guanghan Lu, Li Xiaoming, He Zhike, Shuanglong Hu (1991) Polarographic determination of fluoride using the adsorption wave of the Ce(III)-alizarin complexone-fluoride complex. Talanta 38(9):977–979. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gupta VK, Ali I, Saini VK (2007a) Defluoridation of wastewaters using waste carbon slurry. Water Res 41:3307–3316. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gupta RS, Khan TI, Agrawal D, Kachhawa JB (2007b) The toxic effects of sodium fluoride on the reproductive system of male rats. Toxicol Ind Health 23:507–513. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hamlin AG, Iveson G, Phillips TR (1963) Analysis of volatile inorganic fluorides by gas liquid chromatography. Anal Chem. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. He J, Zhang K, Wu S (2016) Performance of novel hydroxyapatite nanowires in treatment of fluoride contaminated water. J Hazard Mater 303:119–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. He J, Chen K, Cai X (2017) A biocompatible and novelly-defined Al-HAP adsorption membrane for highly effective removal of fluoride from drinking water. J Colloid Interface Sci 490:97–107. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hichour M, Persin F, Sandeaux J, Gavach C (1999) Fluoride removal from waters by Donnan dialysis. Sep Purif Technol 18:1–11. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Anne Marie Helmenstin (2008) How to remove fluoride from drinking water, compilation of fluoride treatment methods.
  65. Inglezakis V, Zorpas A (2012) Heat of adsorption, adsorption energy and activation energy in adsorption and ion exchange systems. Desalin Water Treat 39:149–157. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Islam M, Patel RK (2007) Evaluation of removal efficiency of fluoride from aqueous solution using quick lime. J Hazard Mater 143:303–310. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Jadhav SV, Bringas E, Yadav GD (2015) Arsenic and fluoride contaminated groundwaters: a review of current technologies for contaminants removal. J Environ Manag 162:306–325. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Jain A, Raven KP, Loeppert RH (1999) Arsenite and arsenate adsorption on ferrihydrite: surface charge reduction and net OH-release stoichiometry. Environ Sci Technol 33:1179–1184. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Jha SK, Singh RK, Damodaran T (2013) Fluoride in groundwater: toxicological exposure and remedies. J Toxicol Environ Heal Part B Crit Rev 16:52–66. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Jin H, Ji Z, Yuan J (2015) Research on removal of fluoride in aqueous solution by alumina-modified expanded graphite composite. J Alloys Compd 620:361–367. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Johnston R, Heijnen H (2002) Safe water technology for arsenic removal, report. World Health Organization (WHO), GenevaGoogle Scholar
  72. Joshi SV, Mehta SH, Rao AP, Rao AV (1992) Estimation of sodium fluoride using HPLC in reverse osmosis experiments. Water Treat 7:207–211Google Scholar
  73. Kalló D (2001) Applications of natural zeolites in water and wastewater treatment. Rev Miner Geochem 45:519–550. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kamble SP, Jagtap S, Labhsetwar NK (2007) Defluoridation of drinking water using chitin, chitosan and lanthanum-modified chitosan. Chem Eng J 129:173–180. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Keihei U, Hayashi K, Danzuka T (1960) Spectrophotometric determination of fluoride using lanthanum chloranilate. Talanta 4(4):244–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Koichi C, Yoshida K, Ozaki M (1982) Determination of ultra-trace levels of fluorine in water and urine samples by a gas-chromatographic–atmospheric-pressure helium microwave-induced plasma emission-spectrometric system. Anal Chem 54(4):761–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kubota H, Surak JG (1959) Determination of fluoride by conductometric titration. Anal Chem 31(2):283–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kusrini E, Sofyan N, Suwartha N, Yesya G, Priadi CR (2015) Chitosan-praseodymium complex for adsorption of fluoride ions from water. J Rare Earths 33:1104–1113. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lamar WL (1982) Determination of fluoride in water modified zirconium–alizarin method. Ind Eng Chem Anal Ed 54:761–764. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lee G, Chen C, Yang ST, Ahn WS (2010) Enhanced adsorptive removal of fluoride using mesoporous alumina. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 127:152–156. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Leyva R, Ovalle-Turrubiartes J, Sanchez-Castillo M (1999) Adsorption of fluoride from aqueous solution on aluminum-impregnated carbon. Carbon 37:609–617. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Li Y, Zhang P (2011) Adsorption of fluoride from aqueous solution by graphene. J Colloid Interface Sci 363:348–354. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Li W, Cao CY, Wu LY (2011) Superb fluoride and arsenic removal performance of highly ordered mesoporous aluminas. J Hazard Mater 198:143–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Li Y, Du Q, Wang J (2013) Defluoridation from aqueous solution by manganese oxide coated graphene oxide. J Fluor Chem 148:67–73. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Li J, Liu Q, Huang R, Wang G (2016) Synthesis of a novel Ce(III)-incorporated cross-linked chitosan and its effective removal of fluoride from aqueous solution. J Rare Earths 34:1053–1061. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Li Y, Jiang Y, Wang TJ (2017) Performance of fluoride electrosorption using micropore-dominant activated carbon as an electrode. Sep Purif Technol 172:415–421. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Liao XP, Shi B (2005) Adsorption of fluoride on zirconium (IV)-impregnated collagen fiber. Environ Sci Technol 39:4628–4632. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Liu P-I, Chung L-C, Ho CH (2015) Effects of activated carbon characteristics on the electrosorption capacity of titanium dioxide/activated carbon composite electrode materials prepared by a microwave-assisted ionothermal synthesis method. J Colloid Interface Sci 446:352–358. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Long H, Jin Y, Lin M (2009) Fluoride toxicity in the male reproductive system. Fluoride 42:260–276. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lounici H, Belhocine D, Grib H (2004) Fluoride removal with electro-activated alumina. Desalination 161:287–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lupo M, Fina BL, Aguirre MC, Armendariz M, Rigalli A (2012) Determination of water fluoride concentration and the influence of the geographic coordinate system and time. Water Air Soil Pollut 223:5221–5225. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ma Y, Wang S-G, Fan M (2009) Characteristics and defluoridation performance of granular activated carbons coated with manganese oxides. J Hazard Mater 168:1140–1146. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Macejunas AG (1969) Spectrophotometric determination of fluoride using zirconium–xylenol orange. J Am Water Works Assoc 61:311–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Maier FJ (1947) Methods of removing fluorides from water. Am J Public Heal Nations Heal 37:1559–1566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mattevi C, Eda G, Agnoli S (2009) Evolution of electrical, chemical, and structural properties of transparent and conducting chemically derived graphene thin films. Adv Funct Mater 19:2577–2583. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Medellin-Castillo NA, Leyva-Ramos R, Ocampo-Perez R (2007) Adsorption of fluoride from water solution on bone char. Ind Eng Chem Res 46:9205–9212. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Meenakshi S (1992) Studies on defluoridation of water with a few adsorbents and development of an indigenous defluoridation unit for domestic use. Gandhigram, Tamil NaduGoogle Scholar
  98. Megregian S (1954) Rapid spectrophotometric determination of fluoride with zirconium–eriochrome cyanine R lake. Anal Chem 26:1161–1166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Miretzky P, Cirelli AF (2011) Fluoride removal from water by chitosan derivatives and composites: a review. J Fluor Chem 132:231–240. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Misaelides P (2011) Application of natural zeolites in environmental remediation: a short review. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 144:15–18. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Mittal A, Naushad M, Sharma G et al (2016) Fabrication of MWCNTs/ThO2 nanocomposite and its adsorption behavior for the removal of Pb(II) metal from aqueous medium. Desalin Water Treat 57:21863–21869. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Mohan D, Sharma R, Singh VK (2012) Fluoride removal from water using bio-char, a green waste, low-cost adsorbent: equilibrium uptake and sorption dynamics modeling. Ind Eng Chem Res 51:900–914. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Mumtaz N, Pandey G, Labhasetwar PK (2015) Global fluoride occurrence, available technologies for fluoride removal, and electrolytic defluoridation: a review. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 45:2357–2389. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Murugan M, Subramanian E (2006) Studies on defluoridation of water by tamarind seed, an unconventional biosorbent. J Water Health 4:453–461. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Naushad M (2014) Surfactant assisted nano-composite cation exchanger: development, characterization and applications for the removal of toxic Pb2+ from aqueous medium. Chem Eng J 235:100–108. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Naushad M, Vasudevan S, Sharma G et al (2016) Adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic studies for Hg2+ adsorption from aqueous medium using alizarin red-S-loaded amberlite IRA-400 resin. Desalin Water Treat 57:18551–18559. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Naushad M, Ahamad T, Al-Maswari BM et al (2017) Nickel ferrite bearing nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon as efficient adsorbent for the removal of highly toxic metal ion from aqueous medium. Chem Eng J. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Nawlakhe WG, Paramasivam R (1993) Defluoridation of potable water by Nalgonda technique. Curr Sci 65(10):743–748Google Scholar
  109. Ndiaye PI, Moulin P, Dominguez L (2005) Removal of fluoride from electronic industrial effluent by RO membrane separation. Desalination 173:25–32. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Newsletter, Medical News Today (2018)
  111. Nichols ML, Condo ACJ (1954) Colorimetric determination of fluoride. Anal Chem 26:703–707. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Oguz E (2007) Equilibrium isotherms and kinetics studies for the sorption of fluoride on light weight concrete materials. Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem Eng Asp 295:258–263. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Özacar M, Şengil İA (2005) Adsorption of metal complex dyes from aqueous solutions by pine sawdust. Bioresour Technol 96:791–795. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Parham H, Rahbar N (2009) Solid phase extraction-spectrophotometric determination of fluoride in water samples using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Talanta 80:664–669. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Petersen PE, Lennon MA (2004) Effective use of fluorides for the prevention of dental caries in the 21st century: the WHO approach. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 32:319–321. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Prabhu M, Meenakshi S (2014) Synthesis of metal ion loaded silica gel/chitosan biocomposite and its fluoride uptake studies from water. J Water Process Eng 3:144–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Prabhu SM, Viswanathan N, Meenakshi S (2014) Defluoridation of water using chitosan assisted ethylenediamine functionalized synthetic polymeric blends. Int J Biol Macromol 70:621–627. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Price MJ, Walker OJ (1952) Determination of fluoride in water. Anal Chem 24:1593–1595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Prihasto N, Liu QF, Kim SH (2009) Pre-treatment strategies for seawater desalination by reverse osmosis system. Desalination 249:308–316. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Rajkumar S, Murugesh S, Sivasankar V (2015) Low-cost fluoride adsorbents prepared from a renewable biowaste: syntheses, characterization and modeling studies. Arab J Chem. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Rajkumar S Murugesh S, Sivasankar V, Darchen A, Msagatie M (2015) Low-cost fluoride adsorbents prepared from a renewable biowaste: syntheses, characterization and modeling studies. Arab J Chem. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Raju NJ, Dey S, Gossel W, Wycisk P (2012) Fluoride hazard and assessment of groundwater quality in the semi-arid Upper Panda River basin, Sonbhadra district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Hydrol Sci J 57:1433–1452. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Ravenscroft P (2007) Predicting the global extent of arsenic pollution of groundwater and its potential impact on human health. UNICEF Rep. 1–35Google Scholar
  124. Ravulapalli S, Kunta R (2017) Defluoridation studies using active carbon derived from the barks of Ficusracemosa plant. J Fluor Chem 193:58–66. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Renuka P, Pushpanji K (2013) Review on defluoridation techniques of water. Int J Eng Sci 2:86–94Google Scholar
  126. Revinson D, Harley JH (1953) Spectrophotometric determination of fluoride ion with chrome Azurol S. Anal Chem 25:794–797. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Richards LA, Vuachère M, Schäfer AI (2010) Impact of pH on the removal of fluoride, nitrate and boron by nanofiltration/reverse osmosis. Desalination 261:331–337. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Roy S, Manna S, Sengupta S (2017) Comparative assessment on defluoridation of waste water using chemical and bio-reduced graphene oxide: batch, thermodynamic, kinetics and optimization using response surface methodology and artificial neural network. Process Saf Environ Prot 111:221–231. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Ruiz-Payan A, Ortiz M, Duarte-Gardea M (2005) Determination of fluoride in drinking water and in urine of adolescents living in three counties in Northern Chihuahua Mexico using a fluoride ion selective electrode. Microchem J 81:19–22. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Runaska W, Kawane M, Kajima T (1951) Removal of fluoride ion by anion exchange resin. Chem Abstr 45:5033Google Scholar
  131. Samatya S, Yüksel Ü, Yüksel M, Kabay N (2007) Removal of fluoride from water by metal ions (Al3 +, La3+ and ZrO2) loaded natural zeolite. Sep Sci Technol 42:2033–2047. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Sapana M, Sonal G, Raut PD (2012) Use of Moringa oleifera (Drumstick) seed as natural absorbent and an antimicrobial agent for ground water treatment. Res J Rec Sci 1(3):31–40Google Scholar
  133. Schneiter RW, Middlebrooks EJ (1983) Arsenic and fluoride removal from groundwater by reverse osmosis. Environ Int 9:289–291. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Sepehr MN, Sivasankar V, Zarrabi M, Senthil Kumar M (2013) Surface modification of pumice enhancing its fluoride adsorption capacity: an insight into kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Chem Eng J 228:192–204. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Sepehr MN, Kazemian H, Ghahramani E (2014) Defluoridation of water via light weight expanded clay aggregate (LECA): adsorbent characterization, competing ions, chemical regeneration, equilibrium and kinetic modeling. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 45:1821–1834. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Serrano DP, García RA, Vicente G (2011) Acidic and catalytic properties of hierarchical zeolites and hybrid ordered mesoporous materials assembled from MFI protozeolitic units. J Catal 279:366–380. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Sharma DC, Forster CF (1993) Removal of hexavalent chromium using sphagnum moss peat. Water Res 27:1201–1208. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Sharma G, Naushad M, Pathania D et al (2015) Modification of Hibiscus cannabinus fiber by graft copolymerization: application for dye removal. Desalin Water Treat 54:3114–3121. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Sharma G, Naushad M, Al-Muhtaseb AH et al (2017) Fabrication and characterization of chitosan-crosslinked-poly(alginic acid) nanohydrogel for adsorptive removal of Cr(VI) metal ion from aqueous medium. Int J Biol Macromol 95:484–493. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Shimelis B, Zewge F, Chandravanshi BS (2006) Removal of excess fluoride from water by aluminum hydroxide. Bull Chem Soc Ethiop 20:17–34. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Shrike PA, Chandra P (1991) Fluoride uptake by duck-weed spirodela-polyrrhiza. Fluoride 24:109–112Google Scholar
  142. Shu H, Guanghan L, Xiaoming L, Zjike H (1991) Polarographic determination of fluoride using the adsorption wave of the Ce(III) alizarin complex one-fluoride complex. Talanta 38:977–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Singh K, Lataye DH, Wasewar KL (2017) Removal of fluoride from aqueous solution by using bael (Aegle marmelos) shell activated carbon: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic study. J Fluor Chem 194:23–32. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Singh G, Kumari B, Sinam G, Kriti Kumar N, Mallick S (2018) Fluoride distribution and contamination in the water, soil and plants continuum and its remedial technologies, an Indian perspective a review. Environ Pollut 239:95–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Srimurali M, Pragathi A, Karthikeyan J (1998) A study on removal of fluorides from drinking water by adsorption onto low-cost materials. Environ Pollut 99:285–289. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Subremanian M (2006) Fluoride removal using tea ash: an unconventional biobsorbent. J Water Health 4:453–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. SuC-L Chen L, Wang T-J (2013) Granulation of Fe–Al–Ce nano-adsorbent for fluoride removal from drinking water using inorganic binder. Water Sci Technol Water Supply 13:1309–1316. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Sujana MG, Soma G, Vasumathi N, Anand S (2009) Studies on fluoride adsorption capacities of amorphous Fe/Al mixed hydroxides from aqueous solutions. J Fluor Chem 130:749–754. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Sun Y, Fang Q, Dong J (2011) Removal of fluoride from drinking water by natural stilbite zeolite modified with Fe(III). Desalination 277:121–127. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Suneetha M, Syama Sundar B, Ravindhranath K (2015) Studies on defluoridation techniques: a critical review. Int J Chem Tech Res 8:295–309. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Suzuki T, Chida C, Kanesato K (1989) The removal of fluoride ion by using metal(III)-loaded amberlite resins. Chem Lett 22:1155–1158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Swain SK, Dey RK, Islam M (2009) Removal of fluoride from aqueous solution using aluminum-impregnated chitosan biopolymer. Sep Sci Technol 44:2096–2116. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Tahaikt M, Ait Haddou A, El Habbani R, Amor Z, Elhannouni F, Taky M, Kharif M, Boughriba A, Hafsi M, Elmidaoui A (2008) Comparison of the performances of three commercial membranes in fluoride removal by nanofiltration. Continuous operations. Desalination 225:209–219. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Tang Y, Guan X, Su T (2009) Fluoride adsorption onto activated alumina: modeling the effects of pH and some competing ions. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 337:33–38. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Tang W, Kovalsky P, He D, Waite TD (2015) Fluoride and nitrate removal from brackish groundwaters by batch-mode capacitive deionization. Water Res 84:342–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Tanvir A, Waghmare S (2015) Fluoride removal by clays, geomaterials, minerals, low cost materials and zeolites by adsorption: a review. Int J Sci Eng Technol Res 4(11):3663–3676Google Scholar
  157. Taves DR (1968) Separation of fluoride by rapid diffusion using hexamethyldisiloxane. Talanta 15:969–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Taylor A, Taylor NC (1965) Effect of sodium fluoride on tumor growth. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 119:252–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Teng SX, Wang SG, Gong WX (2009) Removal of fluoride by hydrous manganese oxide-coated alumina: performance and mechanism. J Hazard Mater 168:1004–1011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Teutli-Sequeira A, Martínez-Miranda V, Solache-Ríos M, Linares-Hernández I (2013) Aluminum and lanthanum effects in natural materials on the adsorption of fluoride ions. J Fluor Chem 148:6–13. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Thakkar M, Wu Z, Wei L, Mitra S (2015) Water defluoridation using a nanostructured diatom–ZrO2 composite synthesized from algal Biomass. J Colloid Interface Sci 450:239–245. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Thakre D, Jagtap S, Sakhare N (2010) Chitosan based mesoporous Ti–Al binary metal oxide supported beads for defluoridation of water. Chem Eng J 158:315–324. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Tian Z, Guo W, Zhang Z (2017) Removal of fluorine ions from industrial zinc sulfate solution by a layered aluminum-based composite. Hydrometallurgy 171:222–227. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Tripathy SS, Bersillon JL, Gopal K (2006) Removal of fluoride from drinking water by adsorption onto alum-impregnated activated alumina. Sep Purif Technol 50:310–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Viswanathan N, Sundaram CS, Meenakshi S (2009) Removal of fluoride from aqueous solution using protonated chitosan beads. J Hazard Mater 161:423–430. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Vithanage M, Bhattacharya P (2015) Fluoride in the environment: sources, distribution and defluoridation. Environ Chem Lett 13:131–147. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Wan X, Cai H, Chen G, Peng C, Xu L, Zhu X, Zhang Z, Dong Y, Shang G, Ke F, Gao H (2015) Enhanced removal of fluoride by tea waste supported hydrous aluminium oxide nanoparticles: anionic polyacrylamide mediated aluminium assembly and adsorption mechanism. RSC Adv 5:29266–29275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Wang J, Xu W, Chen L (2013) Excellent fluoride removal performance by CeO2–ZrO2 nanocages in water environment. Chem Eng J 231:198–205. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Wang J, Lin X, Luo X, Long Y (2014) A sorbent of carboxymethyl cellulose loaded with zirconium for the removal of fluoride from aqueous solution. Chem Eng J 252:415–422. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Wasay SA, Haran MJ, Tokunaga S (1996) Adsorption of fluoride, phosphate, and arsenate ions on lanthanum-impregnated silica gel. Water Environ Res 68:295–300. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Xie Y, Wang L, Yang J, Zhu X, Hu Q, Li X, Liu Z (2017) Insight into mechanisms of fluoride removal from contaminated groundwater using lanthanum modified bone waste. RSC Adv 7:54291–54305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Yang B, Zhang L, Liu Q, Huang R (2015) Removal of fluoride from aqueous solution using Zr(IV) immobilized cross-linked chitosan. Int J Biol Macromol 77:15–23. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Yao R, Meng F, Zhang L, Ma D, Wang M (2009) Defluoridation of water using neodymium-modified chitosan. J Hazard Mater 165:454–460. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Zendehdel M, Shoshtari-Yeganeh B, Khanmohamadi H, Cruciani G (2017) Removal of fluoride from aqueous solution by adsorption on NaP:HAp nanocomposite using response surface methodology. Process Saf Environ Prot 109:172–191. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Zhang Z, Tan Y, Zhong M (2011) Defluorination of wastewater by calcium chloride modified natural zeolite. Desalination 276:246–252. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Zhou Y, Yu C, Shan Y (2004) Adsorption of fluoride from aqueous solution on La3+-impregnated cross-linked gelatin. Sep Purif Technol 36:89–94. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Zhou Y, Zhang JF, Yoon J (2014) Fluorescence and colorimetric chemosensors for fluoride-ion detection. Chem Rev 114:5511–5571. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Zhu T, Gao J (2017) Enhanced adsorption of fluoride by cerium immobilized cross-linked chitosan composite. J Fluor Chem 194:80–88. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Zhu BS, Jia Y, Jin Z, Sun B, Luo T, Yu XY, Kong LT, Huang XJ, Liu JH (2015a) Controlled synthesis of natroalunite microtubes and spheres with excellent fluoride removal performance. Chem Eng J 271:240–251. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Zhu J, Lin X, Wu P (2015b) Fluoride removal from aqueous solution by Al(III)–Zr(IV) binary oxide adsorbent. Appl Surf Sci 357:91–100. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringSSN College of EngineeringChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Bld#5King Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IRD, INRA, Coll France, CEREGEAix-en-ProvenceFrance

Personalised recommendations