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Environmental Chemistry Letters

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 1707–1726 | Cite as

Treatment of fluoride-contaminated water. A review

  • P. Senthil KumarEmail author
  • S. Suganya
  • S. Srinivas
  • S. Priyadharshini
  • M. Karthika
  • R. Karishma Sri
  • V. Swetha
  • Mu. NaushadEmail author
  • Eric Lichtfouse
Review
  • 117 Downloads

Abstract

Delivering the right amount of fluoride to drinking water protects the teeth from decay and reduces the risk of cavities. Nonetheless, fluorosis has been diagnosed as the result of excessive exposure of fluoride, which induces brain impairment, muscle disorders and hyperactivity. Fluoride ingestion during the formation of the tooth enamel is the main reason for fluorosis, which is characterized by hypomineralization. Dissolution of fluoride-containing rock minerals contributes to naturally occurring fluoride contamination in water. The intentional addition of fluoride to water in dental care is alarming in growing countries such as India. This article reviews the origin of fluoride, the analysis of fluoride derivatives and the technologies to remove fluoride from water. The manuscript presents adsorption techniques for fluoride removal, using different types of adsorbents. The adsorption capacities of adsorbents under various conditions, such as contaminant concentration, adsorbent dosage, time, pH and temperature, are presented. Adsorbent types include alumina, zeolites, organic waste, shell-based and carbon-based including graphite and carbon nanotubes. Defluoridation of water using clays and muds, modified activated alumina, chitosan derivatives and composites are also discussed.

Keywords

Defluoridation Zeolite Adsorption Reverse osmosis Activated carbon 

Notes

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringSSN College of EngineeringChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Bld#5King Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IRD, INRA, Coll France, CEREGEAix-en-ProvenceFrance

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