Dye removal by biosorption using cross-linked chitosan-based hydrogels

  • Grégorio CriniEmail author
  • Giangiacomo Torri
  • Eric Lichtfouse
  • George Z. Kyzas
  • Lee D. Wilson
  • Nadia Morin-Crini


Synthetic dyes are an important class of recalcitrant organic compounds that are often found in the environment as a result of their wide industrial use. There are estimated to be more than 100,000 commercially available dyes. These substances are common contaminants, and many of them are known to be toxic or carcinogenic. Colored effluents from the industry is perceived by the public as an indication of the presence of a dangerous pollution. Even at very low concentrations, dyes are highly visible—an esthetic pollution—and modify the aquatic life and food chain, as a chemical contamination. Dye contamination of water is a major problem worldwide, and the treatment of wastewaters before their discharge into the environment has become a priority. Dyes are difficult to treat due to their complex aromatic structure and synthetic origin. In general, a combination of different physical, chemical and biological processes is often used to obtain the targeted water quality. Nonetheless, there is a need to develop new removal strategies and decolorization methods that are more effective, acceptable for industrial use and ecofriendly. Currently, there is increasing interest in the application of biological materials as effective adsorbents for dye removal. Among all the materials proposed, cross-linked chitosan-based hydrogels are the most popular biosorbents. These polymeric matrices are the object of numerous fundamental studies. In this review, after a brief description of the use of chitosan in wastewater treatment and the basic principles of chitosan-based hydrogels and biosorption, we focus on some of the work published over the past 5 years. Overall, these polymeric materials have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for some dyes. They might be promising biosorbents for environmental purposes.


Chitosan Hydrogels Dyes Biosorption Batch 



  1. Ahmad M, Kaiser M, Ikram S (2017) Versatile nature of hetero-chitosan based derivatives as biodegradable adsorbent for heavy metal ions. A review. Int J Biol Macromol 105:190–203. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmadi F, Oveisi Z, Mohammadi Samani S, Amoozgar Z (2015) Chitosan based hydrogels: characteristics and pharmaceuticals applications. Res Pharm Sci 10:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed EM (2015) Hydrogel: preparation, characterization, and applications: a review. J Adv Res 6:105–121. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmed S, Ikram S (eds) (2017) Chitosan—derivatives, composites and applications. Scrivener Publishing LLC, Beverly, p 516Google Scholar
  5. Akhtar MF, Hanif M, Ranjha M (2016) Methods of synthesis of hydrogels… a review. Saudi Pharm J 24:554–559. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aksu Z (2005) Application of biosorption for the removal of organic pollutants: a review. Process Biochem 40:997–1026. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alaba PA, Oladoja NA, Sani YM, Ayodele OB, Mohammed IY, Olupinla Sunday Felix, Daud WMW (2018) Insight into wastewater decontamination using polymeric adsorbents. J Environ Chem Eng 6:1651–1672. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Al-Duri B (1996) Adsorption modeling and mass transfer. In: McKay G (ed) Use of adsorbents for the removal of pollutants from wastewaters, chapter 7. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 133–173Google Scholar
  9. Ali I (2012) New generation adsorbents for water treatment. Chem Rev 112:5073–5091. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Allen SJ (1996) Types of adsorbent materials. In: McKay G (ed) Use of adsorbents for the removal of pollutants from wastewaters, chapter 5. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 59–97Google Scholar
  11. Al-Mubaddel FS, Haider S, Aijaz MO, Haider A, Kamal T, Almasry WA, Javid M, Khan SUD (2017) Preparation of the chitosan/polyacrylonitrile semi-IPN hydrogel via glutaraldehyde vapors for the removal of Rhodamine B dye. Polym Bull 74:1535–1551. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Aly RO (2017) Implementation of chitosan inductively modified by gamma-rays copolymerization with acrylamide in the decontamination of aqueous basic dye solution. Arab J Chem 10:S121–S126. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Aminabhavi TM, Dharupaneedi SP (2017) Production of chitosan-based hydrogels for biomedical applications. In: Jennings JA, Bumgardner JD (eds) Chitosan based biomaterials. Volume 1: fundamentals, part III, chapter 12, vol 122. Woodhead publishing series in biomaterials. Elsevier, Kidlington, pp 295–319. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Anastopoulos I, Bhatnagar A, Bikiaris DN, Kyzas GZ (2017) Chitin adsorbents for toxic metals: a review. Int J Mol Sci 18:1–11. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Anjaneyulu Y, Sreedhara Chary N, Samuel Suman Raj D (2005) Decolourization of industrial effluents—available methods and emerging technologies: a review. Rev Environ Sci Bio/Technol. 4:245–273. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Arfin T (2017) Chitosan and its derivatives: overview of commercial applications in diverse fields. In: Ahmed S, Ikram S (eds) Chitosan—derivatives, composites and applications, chapter 5. Scrivener Publishing LLC, Beverly, pp 115–150. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Azarova YA, Pestov AV, Bratskaya SZ (2016) Application of chitosan and its derivatives for solid-phase extraction of metal and metalloid ions: a mini-review. Cellulose 23:2273–2289. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Barakat MA (2011) New trends in removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater. Arab J Chem 4:361–377. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Barbusinski K, Salwiczek S, Paszewska A (2016) The use of chitosan for removing selected pollutants from water and wastewater—short review. Archit Civ Eng Environ 9:107–115Google Scholar
  20. Berefield LD, Judkins JF, Weand BL (1982) Process chemistry for water and wastewater treatment. Prentice-Hall, New-Jersey, p 510Google Scholar
  21. Bernardi F, Zadinelo IW, Alves HJ, Meurer F, dos Santos LD (2018) Chitins and chitosans for the removal of total ammoniac of aquaculture effluents. Aquaculture 483:203–212. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bhatnagar A, Minocha AK (2006) Conventional and non-conventional adsorbents for removal of pollutants from water—a review. Indian J Chem Technol 13:203–217Google Scholar
  23. Bhatnagar A, Sillanpää M (2009) Applications of chitin- and chitosan-derivatives for the detoxification of water and wastewater—a short review. Adv Colloid Int Sci 152:26–38. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Blackburn RS (2004) Natural polysaccharides and their interactions with dye molecules: applications in effluent treatment. Environ Sci Technol 38:4905–4909. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Boamah PO, Huang Y, Hua M, Zhang Q, Wu J, Onumah J, Sam-Amoah LK, Boamah PO (2015) Sorption of heavy metal ions onto carboxylate chitosan derivatives—a mini-review. Ecotox Environ Saf 116:113–120. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bratby J (ed) (2006) Coagulation and flocculation in water and wastewater treatment. IWA Publishing, London, p 407Google Scholar
  27. Caccavo D, Cascone S, Lamberti G, Barba AA (2018) Hydrogels: experimental characterization and mathematical modelling or their mechanical and diffuse behavior. Chem Soc Rev 47:2357–2373. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chuah TG, Jumasiah A, Azni I, Katayon S, Choong SYT (2005) Rice husk as a potentially low-cost biosorbent for heavy metal and dye removal: an overview. Desalination 175:305–316. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cooney DO (ed) (1999) Adsorption design for wastewater treatment. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, p 208Google Scholar
  30. Copello GJ, Villanueva ME, Gonzalez JA, Lopez Eguees S, Diaz LE (2014) TEOS as an improved alternative for chitosan beads cross-linking: a comparative adsorption study. J Appl Polym Sci 131:41005. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cox M, Négré P, Yurramendi L (2007) Industrial liquid effluents. INASMET Tecnalia, San Sebastian, p 283Google Scholar
  32. Crini G (2005) Recent developments in polysaccharide-based materials used as adsorbents in wastewater treatment. Prog Polym Sci 30:38–70. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Crini G (2006) Non-conventional low-cost adsorbents for dye removal. Bioresour Technol 97:1061–1085. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Crini G (2015) Non-conventional adsorbents for dye removal. In: Sharma SK (ed) Green chemistry for dyes removal from wastewater. Scrivener Publishing LLC, Beverly, pp 359–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Crini G, Badot PM (2008) Application of chitosan, a natural aminopolysaccharide, for dye removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption processes using batch studies: a review of recent literature. Prog Polym Sci 33:399–447. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Crini G, Lichtfouse E (eds) (2018) Green adsorbents for pollutant removal—innovative materials. Environmental chemistry for a sustainable world. Springer, Basel, p 399. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Crini G, Badot PM, Guibal E (eds) (2009) Chitine et chitosane—du biopolymère à l’application. PUFC, France, Besançon, p 303Google Scholar
  38. Crini G, Morin-Crini N, Fatin-Rouge N, Déon S, Fievet P (2017) Metal removal from aqueous media by polymer-assisted ultrafiltration with chitosan. Arab J Chem 10:S3826–S3839. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Crini G, Torri G, Lichtfouse É, Kyzas GZ, Wilson LD, Morin-Crini N (2019) Cross-linked chitosan hydrogels for dye removal. In: Crini G, Lichtfouse É (eds) Chitin and chitosan—applications in food, agriculture, pharmacy, medicine and wastewater treatment, vol 35. Sustainable agriculture reviews. Springer, Basel. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Czechowska-Biskup R, Wach RA, Stojek P, Kamińska M, Rosiak JM, Ulański P (2016) Synthesis of chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogels by electron beam irradiation. Prog Chem Appl Chitin Deriv 21:27–45. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dash M, Piras AM, Chiellini F (2009) Chitosan-based beads for controlled release of proteins. In: Barbucci R (ed) Hydrogels—biological properties and applications. Springer, Milan, pp 111–120Google Scholar
  42. de Alvarenga ES (2011) Characterization and properties of chitosan. In: Elnashar M (ed) Biotechnology of biopolymers, chapter 5. InTech, Rijeka, pp 91–108. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. de Andrade JR, Oliveira MF, da Silva MGC, Vieira MGA (2018) Adsorption of pharmaceuticals from water and wastewater using nonconventional low-cost materials: a review. Ind Eng Chem Res 57:3103–3127. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. de Luna MS, Altobelli R, Gioiella L, Castaldo R, Scherillo G, Filippone G (2017a) Role of polymer network and gelation kinetics on the mechanical properties and adsorption capacity of chitosan hydrogels for dye removal. J Polym Sci Part B Polym Phys 55:1843–1849. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. de Luna MS, Castaldo R, Altobelli R, Gioiella L, Filippone G, Gentile G, Ambrogi V (2017b) Chitosan hydrogels embedding hyper-crosslinked polymer particles as reusable broad-spectrum adsorbents for dye removal. Carbohydr Polym 177:347–354. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Desbrières J, Guibal E (2018) Chitosan for wastewater treatment. Polym Int 67:7–14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dolatkhah A, Wilson LD (2016) Magnetite/polymer brush nanocomposites with switchable uptake behavior toward methylene blue. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8:5595–5607. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Dolatkhah A, Wilson LD (2018) Salt-responsive Fe3O4 nanocomposites and phase behavior in water. Langmuir 34:341–350. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dragan ES (2014) Design and applications of interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels. A review. Chem Eng J 243:572–590. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Drăgan ES, Lazăr MM, Dinu MV, Doroftei F (2012) Macroporous composite IPN hydrogels based on poly(acrylamide) and chitosan with tuned swelling and sorption of cationic dyes. Chem Eng J 204–206:198–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Du WL, Xu ZR, Han XY, Xu YL, Miao ZG (2008) Preparation, characterization and adsorption properties of chitosan nanoparticles for eosin Y as a model anionic dye. J Hazard Mat 153:152–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. El Halah A, López-Carrasquero F, Contreras J (2018) Applications of hydrogels in the adsorption of metallic ions. Rev Cienc Ing 39:57–70Google Scholar
  53. El-Harby NF, Ibrahim SMA, Mohamed NA (2017) Adsorption of Congo red dye onto antimicrobial terephthaloyl thiourea cross-linked chitosan hydrogels. Water Sci Technol 76:2719–2732. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. El-Sayed MM, Al Bazedi GA, Abdel-Fatah MA (2017) Development of a novel hydrogel adsorbent for removal of reactive dyes from textile effluents. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 8:945–955Google Scholar
  55. Elwakeel KZ (2010) Environmental application of chitosan resins for the treatment of water and wastewater: a review. J Dispers Sci Technol 31:273–288. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Esquerdo VM, Cadaval TRS Jr, Dotto GL, Pinto LAA (2014) Chitosan scaffold as an alternative adsorbent for the removal of hazardous food dyes from aqueous solutions. J Colloid Int Sci 424:7–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Esquerdo VM, Quintana TM, Dotto GL, Pinto LA (2015) Kinetics and mass transfer aspects about the adsorption of tartrazine by a porous chitosan sponge. React Kinet Mech Catal 116:105–117. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fan L, Zhang Y, Luo C, Lu F, Qiu H, Sun M (2012) Synthesis and characterization of magnetic & #x03B2;-cyclodextrin-chitosan nanoparticles as nano-adsorbents for removal of methyl blue. Int J Biol Macromol 50:444–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Filipkowska U, Kuczajowska-Zadrożna M, Jóźwiak T, Szymczyk P, Nierobisz M (2016) Impact of chitosan cross-linking on RB 5 dye adsorption efficiency. Prog Chem Appl Chitin Deriv 21:46–54. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Forgacs E, Cserhati T, Oros G (2004) Removal of synthetic dyes from wastewaters: a review. Environ Int 30:953–971. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gadd GM (2009) Biosorption: critical review of scientific rationale, environmental importance and significance for pollution treatment. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 84:13–28. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gavrilescu M (2004) Removal of heavy metals from the environment by biosorption. Eng Life Sci 4:219–232. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gérente C, Lee VKC, Le Cloirec P, McKay G (2007) Application of chitosan for the removal of metals from wastewaters by adsorption—mechanisms and models review. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 37:41–127. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gonçalves JO, Dotto GL, Pinto LAA (2015) Cyanoguanidine-crosslinked chitosan to adsorption of food dyes in the aqueous binary system. J Mol Liq 211:425–430. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gonçalves JO, Santos JP, Rios EC, Crispim MM, Dotto GL, Pinto LAA (2017) Development of chitosan based hybrid hydrogels for dyes removal from aqueous binary system. J Mol Liq 225:265–270. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Goosen MFA (ed) (1997) Applications of chitin and chitosan. CRC Press LLC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  67. Guo R, Wilson LD (2012) Synthetically engineered chitosan-based materials and their sorption properties with methylene blue in aqueous solution. J Colloid Int Sci 388:225–234. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gupta VK, Suhas (2009) Application of low-cost adsorbents for dye removal – a review. J Environ Manag 90:2313–2342. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Gupta VK, Nayak A, Agarwal S (2015) Bioadsorbents for remediation of heavy metals: current status and their future prospects. Environ Eng Res 20:1–18. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hadi P, Xu M, Ning C, Sze Ki Lin C, McKay G (2015) A critical review on preparation, characterization and utilization of sludge-derived activated carbons for wastewater treatment. Chem Eng J 260:895–906. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hai FI, Yamamoto K, Fukushi K (2007) Hybrid treatment systems for dye wastewater. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 37:315–377. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hamdaoui O, Naffrechoux E (2007a) Modeling of adsorption isotherms of phenol and chlorophenols onto granular activated carbon. Part I. Two-parameter models and equations allowing determination of thermodynamic parameters. J Hazard Mater 147:381–394. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hamdaoui O, Naffrechoux E (2007b) Modeling of adsorption isotherms of phenol and chlorophenols onto granular activated carbon. Part II. Models with more than two parameters. J Hazard Mater 147:401–411. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Henze M (ed) (2001) Wastewater treatment—biological and chemical processes. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  75. Hirano S (1997) Applications of chitin and chitosan in the ecological and environmental fields. In: Goosen MFA (ed) Applications of chitin and chitosan, chapter 2. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, pp 31–56Google Scholar
  76. Ho YS (2006) Review of second-order models for adsorption systems. J Hazard Mater 136:681–689. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ho YS, McKay G (1998) A comparison of chemisorption kinetic models applied to pollutant removal on various sorbents. Process Saf Environ Prot 76:332–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Honarkar H, Barikani M (2009) Applications of biopolymers I: chitosan. Monatsh Chem 140:1403–1420. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hou H, Zhou R, Wu P, Wu L (2012) Removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution with hydroxyapatite/chitosan composite. Chem Eng J 211:336–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Houghton JI, Quarmby J (1999) Biopolymers in wastewater treatment. Curr Opin Biotechnol 10:259–262. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Jing G, Wang L, Yu H, Amer WA, Zhang L (2013) Recent progress on study of hybrid hydrogels for water treatment. Coll Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 416:86–94. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Jóźwiak T, Filipkowska U, Rodziewicz J, Nowosad E (2013) Effect of cross-linking with glutaraldehyde on adsorption capacity of chitosan beads. Progress Chem Appl Chitin Deriv XVIII:35–47Google Scholar
  83. Jóźwiak T, Filipkowska U, Szymczyk P, Kuczajowska-Zadrożna M, Mielcarek A (2015) Application of chitosan ionically crosslinked with sodium edetate for reactive dyes removal from aqueous solutions. Progress Chem Appl Chitin Deriv 20:82–96. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Jóźwiak T, Filipkowska U, Szymczyk P, Zyśk M (2017a) Effect of the form and deacetylation degree of chitosan sorbents on sorption effectiveness of reactive black 5 from aqueous solutions. Int J Biol Macromol 95:1169–1178. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Jóźwiak T, Filipkowska U, Szymczyk P, Rodziewicz J, Mielcarek A (2017b) Effect of ionic and covalent crosslinking agents on properties of chitosan beads and sorption effectiveness of reactive black 5 dye. React Funct Polym 114:58–74. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kanmani P, Aravind J, Kamaraj M, Sureshbabu P, Karthikeyan S (2017) Environmental applications of chitosan and cellulosic biopolymers: a comprehensive outlook. Bioresour Technol 242:295–303. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Karimi AR, Rostaminezhad B, Khodadadi A (2018) Effective removal of a cobalt-tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine dye from an aqueous solution with a novel modified chitosan-based superabsorbent hydrogel. J Appl Polym Sci 355:46167. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Karimifard S, Moghaddam MRA (2018) Application of response surface methodology in physicochemical removal of dyes from wastewater: a critical review. Sci Total Environ 640–641:772–797. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Karoyo AH, Dehabadi L, Wilson LD (2018) Renewable starch particle carriers with switchable adsorption properties. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 6:4603–4613. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Katheresan V, Kansedo J, Lau SY (2018) Efficiency of various recent wastewater dye removal methods: a review. J Environ Chem Eng 6:4676–4697. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Khalaf MN (ed) (2016) Green polymers and environmental pollution control. CRC Press; Apple Academic Press Inc, Oakville, p 436Google Scholar
  92. Khan M, Lo IMC (2016) A holistic review of hydrogel applications in the adsorptive removal of aqueous pollutants: recent progress, challenges, and perspectives. Water Res 106:259–271. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Khor E, Wan ACA (2014) Overview of chitin and chitosan research. In: Khor E, Wan ACA (eds) Chitin: fulfilling a biomaterials promise, chapter 1. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 1–20Google Scholar
  94. Kos L (2016) Use of chitosan for textile wastewater decolourization. Fibres Text 24:130–135. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kurita K (1998) Chemistry and application of chitin and chitosan. Polym Degrad Stab 59:117–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kurita K (2006) Chitin and chitosan: functional biopolymers from marine crustaceans. Mar Biotechnol 8:203–226. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Kuroiwa T, Takada H, Shogen A, Saito K, Kobayashi I, Uemura K, Kanazawa A (2017) Cross-linkable chitosan-based hydrogel microbeads with pH-responsive adsorption properties for organic dyes prepared using size-tunable microchannel emulsification technique. Coll Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 514:69–78. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kyzas GZ, Bikiaris DN (2015) Recent modifications of chitosan for adsorption applications: a critical and systematic review. Mar Drugs 13:312–337. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kyzas GZ, Kostoglou M (2014) Green adsorbents for wastewaters: a critical review. Materials 7:333–364. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kyzas GZ, Fu J, Matis KA (2013a) The change from past to future for adsorbent materials in treatment of dyeing wastewaters. Materials 6:5131–5158. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Kyzas GZ, Kostoglou M, Lazaridis NK, Bikiaris DN (2013b) Decolorization of dyeing wastewater using polymeric adsorbents—an overview. In: Günay M (ed) Eco-friendly textile dyeing and finishing, chapter 7. InTech, Rijeka, pp 177–205. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kyzas GZ, Lazaridis NK, Kostoglou M (2014) Adsorption/desorption of a dye by a chitosan derivative: experiments and phenomenological modeling. Chem Eng J 248:327–336. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Kyzas GZ, Bikiaris DN, Mitropoulos AC (2017) Chitosan adsorbents for dye removal: a review. Polym Int 66:1800–1811. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Langmuir I (1916) The constitution and fundamental properties of solids and liquids. Part I. Solids. J Am Chem Soc 38:2221–2295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Langmuir I (1918) The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum. J Am Chem Soc 40:1361–1403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lee KE, Morad N, Teng TT, Poh BT (2012) Development, characterization and the application of hybrid materials in coagulation/flocculation of wastewater: a review. Chem Eng J 203:370–386. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Lee CS, Robinson J, Chong MF (2014) A review on application of flocculants in wastewater treatment. Proc Saf Environ Protection 92:489–508. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Li CB, Hein S, Wang K (2008) Biosorption of chitin and chitosan. Mater Sci Technol 24:1088–1099. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Li DK, Li Q, Mao DY, Bai NN, Dong HZ (2017) A versatile bio-based material for efficiently removing toxic dyes, heavy metal ions and emulsified oil droplets from water simultaneously. Bioresour Technol 245:649–655. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Lin CY, Li SX, Chen M, Jiang R (2017) Removal of Congo red dye by gemini surfactant C-12-4-C-12 center dot 2Br-modified chitosan hydrogel beads. J Dispers Sci Technol 38:46–57. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Liu C, Bai R (2014) Recent advances in chitosan and its derivatives as adsorbents for removal of pollutants from water and wastewater. Curr Opin Chem Eng 4:62–70. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Liu DHF, Liptak BG (eds) (2000) Wastewater treatment. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  113. Liu Y, Huang SB, Zhao YS, Zhang YQ (2018) Fabrication of three-dimensional porous beta-cyclodextrin/chitosan functionalized graphene oxide hydrogel for methylene blue removal from aqueous solution. Coll Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 539:1–10. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Luna-Bárcenas G, Prokhorov E, Elizalde-Peña E, Nuno-Licona A, Sanchez IC, Gough JE, Velasquillo-Martinez C, Schmidt CE (2011) Chitosan-based hydrogels for tissue engineering applications. Series: biotechnology in agriculture, industry and medicine chemical engineering methods and technology. Nova Science Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  115. Mandal B, Ray SK (2014) Swelling, diffusion, network parameters and adsorption properties of IPN hydrogel of chitosan and acrylic copolymer. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 44:132–143. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Melo BC, Paulino FAA, Cardoso VA, Pereira AGB, Fajardo AR, Rodrigues FHA (2018) Cellulose nanowhiskers improve the methylene blue adsorption capacity of chitosan-g-poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel. Carbohydr Polym 181:358–367. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Michalak I, Chojnacka K, Witek-Krowiak A (2013) State of the art for the biosorption process—a review. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Miretzky P, Cirelli AF (2011) Fluoride removal from water by chitosan derivatives and composites: a review. J Fluor Chem 132:231–240. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Mittal H, Ray SS, Okamoto M (2016) Recent progress on the design and applications of polysaccharide-based graft copolymer hydrogels as adsorbents for wastewater purification. Macromol Mater Eng 301:496–522. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Mohamed MH, Udoetok IA, Wilson LD, Headley JV (2015) Fractionation of carboxylate anions from aqueous solution using chitosan cross-linked sorbent materials. RSC Adv 5:82065–82077. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Mohan D, Pittman CU (2007) Arsenic removal from waste/wastewater using adsorbents—a critical review. J Hazard Mater 142:1–53. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Momenzadeh H, Tehrani-Bagha AR, Khosravi A, Gharanjig K, Holmberg K (2011) Reactive dye removal from wastewater using a chitosan nanodispersion. Desalination 271:225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Morin-Crini N, Crini G (eds) (2017) Eaux industrielles contaminées. PUFC, Besançon, p 513Google Scholar
  124. Morin-Crini N, Lichtfouse É, Torri G, Crini G (2019) Fundamentals and applications of chitosan. In: Crini G, Lichtfouse É (eds) Chitin and chitosan—history, fundamentals & innovations, chapter 2, vol 35. Sustainable agriculture reviews. Springer, Basel. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Mozalewska V, Czechowska-Biskup R, Olejnik AK, Wach RA, Ulanski P, Rosiak JM (2017) Chitosan-containing hydrogel wound dressings prepared by radiation technique. Radiat Phys Chem 134:1–7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Muya FN, Sunday CE, Baker P, Iwuoha E (2016) Environmental remediation of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution through hydrogel adsorption: a critical review. Water Sci Technol 73:983–992. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Muzzarelli RAA (2011) Potential of chitin/chitosan-bearing materials for uranium recovery: an interdisciplinary review. Carbohydr Polym 84:54–63. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Nakhjiri MT, Marandi GB, Kurdtabar M (2018) Poly(AA-co-VPA) hydrogel cross-linked with N-maleyl chitosan as dye adsorbent: isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic investigation. Int J Biol Macromol 117:152–166. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Nasef MM, Nallappan M, Ujang Z (2014) Polymer-based chelating adsorbents for the selective removal of boron from water and wastewater: a review. React Funct Polym 85:54–68. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Nechita P (2017) Applications of chitosan in wastewater treatment. In: Shalaby EA (ed) Biological activities and application of marine polysaccharides, chapter 10. InTech, Rijeka, pp 209–228. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Nilsen-Nygaard J, Strand SP, Vårum KJ, Draget KI, Nordgård CT (2015) Chitosan: gels and interfacial properties. Polymers 7:552–579. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. No HK, Meyers SP (1995) Preparation and characterization of chitin and chitosan—a review. J Aquat Food Prod Technol 4:27–52. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. No HK, Meyers SP (2000) Application of chitosan for treatment of wastewaters. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 63:1–28. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Oladoja NA (2015) Headway on natural polymeric coagulants in water and wastewater treatment operations. J Water Proc Eng 6:174–192. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Oliveira LS, Franca AS (2008) Low cost adsorbents from agro-food wastes. In: Greco LV, Bruno MN (eds) Food science and technology: new research. Nova Publishers, New-York, pp 1–39Google Scholar
  136. Olivera S, Muralidhara HB, Venkatesh K, Guna VK, Gopalakrishna K, Kumar KY (2016) Potential applications of cellulose and chitosan nanoparticles/composites in wastewater treatment: a review. Carbohydr Polym 153:600–618. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Onsoyen E, Skaugrud O (1990) Metal recovery using chitosan. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 49:395–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Pakdel PR, Peighambardoust SJ (2018) Review on recent progress in chitosan-based hydrogels for wastewater treatment application. Carbohydr Polym 201:264–279. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Park D, Yun YS, Park JM (2010) The past, present, and future trends of biosorption. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng 15:86–102. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Pellá MCG, Lima-Tenorio MK, Tenorio-Neto ET, Guilherme MR, Muniz EC, Rubira AF (2018) Chitosan-based hydrogels: from preparation to biomedical applications. Carbohydr Polym 196:233–245. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Pereira AGB, Martins AF, Paulino AT, Fajardo AR, Guilherme MR, Faria MGI, Linde GA, Rubira AF, Muniz EC (2017) Recent advances in designing hydrogels from chitin and chitin-derivatives and their impact on environment and agriculture: a review. Rev Virtual Quim 9:370–386. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Peters MG (1995) Applications and environmental aspects of chitin and chitosan. J Mat Sci Pure Appl Chem A32:629–640Google Scholar
  143. Piaskowski K, Swiderska-Dabrowska R, Zarzycki PK (2018) Dye removal from water and wastewater using various physical, chemical, and biological processes. J AOAC Int 101:1371–1384. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Piątkowski M, Janus Ł, Radwan-Pragłowska J, Raclavsky K (2017) Microwave-enhanced synthesis of biodegradable multifunctional chitosan hydrogels for wastewater treatment. Express Polym Lett 11:809–819. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Pillai CKS, Paul W, Sharma CP (2009) Chitin and chitosan polymers: chemistry, solubility and fiber formation. Prog Polym Sci 34:641–678. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Pokhrel D, Viraraghavan T (2004) Treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater—a review. Sci Total Technol 333:37–58. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Qi C, Zhao L, Lin Y, Wu D (2018) Graphene oxide/chitosan sponge as a novel filtering material for the removal of dye from water. J Colloid Int Sci 517:18–27. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Qu J (2008) Research progress of novel adsorption processes in water purification: a review. J Environ Sci 20:1–13. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Ramakrishna KR, Viraraghavan T (1997) Dye removal using low cost adsorbents. Water Sci Technol 36:189–196. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Rathoure AK, Dhatwalia VK (2016) Toxicity and waste management using bioremediation. IGI Global, Hershey, p 421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Ravi Kumar MNV (2000) A review of chitin and chitosan applications. React Funct Polym 46:1–27. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Ravichandran YD, Rajesh R (2013) Marine polysaccharide (chitosan) and its derivatives as water purifier isolation and characterization of chitin and chitosan. In: Kim SK (ed) Marine biomaterials. Characterization, isolation and applications, part IV, chapter 38. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 747–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Reddy DHK, Lee SM (2013) Application of magnetic chitosan composites for the removal of toxic metal and dyes from aqueous solutions. Adv Colloid Int Sci 201–202:68–93. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Rhazi M, Tolaimate A, Habibi Y (2012) Interactions of chitosan with metals for water purification. In: Habibi Y, Lucia A (eds) polysaccharide building blocks: a sustainable approach to the development of renewable biomaterials, chapter 4. Wiley, New Jersey, pp 127–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Roberts GAF (1992) Chitin chemistry, 1st edn. Macmillan Press, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Sabzevari M, Cree DE, Wilson LD (2018) Graphene oxide-chitosan composite material for treatment of a model dye effluent. ACS Omega 32:1–10. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Salehi R, Arami M, Mahmoodi NM, Bahrami H, Khorramfar S (2010) Novel biocompatible composite (chitosan-zinc oxide nanoparticle): preparation, characterization and dye adsorption properties. Coll Surf B Biointerfaces 80:86–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Salehi E, Daraei P, Shamsabadi AA (2016) A review on chitosan-based adsorptive membranes. Carbohydr Polym 152:419–432. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Salehizadeh H, Yan N, Farnood R (2018) Recent advances in polysaccharide bio-based flocculants. Biotechnol Adv 36:92–119. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Sandford P (1989) Chitosan: commercial uses and potential applications. In: Skjåk-Braek E, Anthonsen T, Standorf P (eds) Chitin and chitosan: sources chemistry, biochemistry, physical properties and applications. Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp 51–69Google Scholar
  161. Sanghi R, Verma P (2013) Decolorisation of aqueous dye solutions by low-cost adsorbents: a review. Coloration Technol 129:85–108. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Shariatinia Z, Jalali AM (2018) Chitosan-based hydrogels: preparation, properties and applications. Int J Biol Macromol 115:194–220. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Sharma SK (ed) (2015) Green chemistry for dyes removal from wastewater. Scrivener Publishing LLC Wiley, Beverley, p 496Google Scholar
  164. Sharma SK, Sanghi R (eds) (2012) Advances in water treatment and pollution prevention. Dordrecht, Springer, p 457Google Scholar
  165. Shen X, Shamshina JL, Berton P, Gurau G, Rogers RD (2016) Hydrogels based on cellulose and chitin: fabrication, properties, and applications. Green Chem 18:53–75. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Shukla SK, Mishra AK, Arotiba OA, Mamba BB (2013) Chitosan-based nanomaterials: a state-of-the-art. Int J Biol Macromol 59:46–58. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Sinha S, Singh R, Chaurasia AK, Nigam S (2016) Self-sustainable Chlorella pyrenoidosa strain NCIM 2738 based photobioreactor for removal of direct red-31 dye along with other industrial pollutants to improve the water-quality. J Hazard Mater 306:386–394. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Skjåk-Braek G, Anthonsen T, Sandford PA (eds) (1989) Chitin and chitosan. Sources, chemistry, biochemistry, physical properties and applications. Elsevier Applied Science, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  169. Subramani SE, Thinakaran N (2017) Isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the adsorption behavior of textile dyes onto chitosan. Proc Saf Environ Prot 106:1–10. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Sudha PN (2011) Chitin/chitosan and derivatives for wastewater treatment. In: Kim SK (ed) Chitin, chitosan, oligosaccharides and their derivatives: biological activities and applications, chapter 39. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 561–588Google Scholar
  171. Sudha PN, Aisverya S, Gomathi T, Vijayalakshmi K, Saranya M, Sangeetha K, Latha S, Thomas S (2017) Applications of chitin/chitosan and its derivatives as adsorbents, coagulants and flocculants. In: Ahmed S, Ikram S (eds) Chitosan—derivatives, composites and applications. Scrivener Publishing LLC, Beverly, pp 453–487. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Tan KB, Vakili M, Horri BA, Poh PE, Abdullah AZ, Salamatinaia B (2015) Adsorption of dyes by nanomaterials: recent developments and adsorption mechanisms. Sep Purif Technol 150:229–242. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Tang X, Zhang X, Zhou A (2007) Research progresses on adsorbing heavy metal ions with crosslinked chitosan. Ion Exch Sorpt 23:378–384Google Scholar
  174. Teng D (2016) From chitin to chitosan. In: Yao K, Li J, Yao F, Yin Y (eds) chitosan-based hydrogels: functions and applications, chapter 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 1–38Google Scholar
  175. Tran VS, Ngo HH, Guo W, Zhang J, Liang S, Ton-That C, Zhang X (2015) Typical low cost biosorbents for adsorptive removal of specific organic pollutants from water. Bioresour Technol 182:353–363. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Udoetok IA, Wilson LD, Headley JV (2016) Self-assembled and cross-linked animal and plant-based polysaccharides: chitosan-cellulose composites and their anion uptake. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8:33197–33209. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Ujang Z, Diah M, Rashid AHA, Halim AS (2011) The development, characterization and application of water soluble chitosan. In: Elnashar M (ed) Biotechnology of biopolymers, chapter 6. InTech, Rijeka, pp 109–130. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Ullah F, Othman MBH, Javed F, Ahmad Z, Md Akil H (2015) Classification, processing and application of hydrogels: a review. Mater Sci Eng C 57:414–433. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Vakili M, Rafatullah M, Salamatinia B, Abdullah AZ, Ibrahim MH, Tan KB, Gholami Z, Amouzgar P (2014) Application of chitosan and its derivatives as adsorbents for dye removal from water and wastewater: a review. Carbohydr Polym 113:115–130. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Van Tran V, Park D, Lee YC (2018) Hydrogel applications for adsorption of contaminants in water and wastewater treatment. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:24569–24599. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. van Vliergerghe S, Dubruel P, Schacht E (2011) Biopolymer-based hydrogels as scaffolds for tissue engineering applications: a review. Biomacromol 12:1387–1408. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Vandenbossche M, Jimenez M, Casetta M, Traisnel M (2015) Remediation of heavy metals by biomolecules: a review. Critical Rev Environ Sci Technol 45:1644–1704. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Varma AJ, Deshpande SV, Kennedy JF (2004) Metal complexation by chitosan and its derivatives: a review. Carbohydr Polym 55:77–93. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Vaz MG, Pereira AGB, Fajardo AR, Azevedo ACN, Rodrigues FHA (2017) Methylene blue adsorption on chitosan-g-poly(acrylic acid)/rice husk ash superabsorbent composite: kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamics. Water Air Soil Pollut 228:14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Wang J, Chen C (2009) Biosorbents for heavy metals and their future. Biotechnol Adv 27:195–226. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Wang J, Zhuang S (2017) Removal of various pollutants from water and wastewater by modified chitosan adsorbents. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 47:2331–2386. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Wang C, Li J, Yao F (2016) Application of chitosan-based biomaterials in tissue engineering. In: Yao K, Li J, Yao F, Yin Y (eds) Chitosan-based hydrogels: functions and applications, chapter 9. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 407–468Google Scholar
  188. Wang WB, Zhang HX, Shen JF, Ye MX (2018) Facile preparation of magnetic chitosan/poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel beads with excellent adsorption ability via freezing-thawing method. Coll Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 553:672–680. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Wilson LD, Tewari BB (2018) Chitosan-based adsorbents: environmental applications for the removal of arsenicals. Mater Res Found 34:133–160. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Wojnárovits L, Takács E (2008) Irradiation treatment of azo dye containing wastewater: an overview. Rad Phys Chem 77:225–244. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Wong YC, Szeto YS, Cheung WH, McKay G (2003) Equilibrium studies for acid dye adsorption onto chitosan. Langmuir 19:7888–7894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Wong YC, Szeto YS, Cheung WH, McKay G (2004) Adsorption of acid dyes on chitosan – equilibrium isotherm analyses. Proc Biochem 39:693–702. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Xiao Y, Zhu J, Zheng L (2016) Applications of chitosan-based gels in pharmaceuticals. In: Yao K, Li J, Yao F, Yin Y (eds) Chitosan-based hydrogels: functions and applications, chapter 7. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 315–338Google Scholar
  194. Yang R, Li H, Huang M, Yang H, Li A (2016a) A review on chitosan-based flocculants and their applications in water treatment. Water Res 95:59–89. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Yang H, Sheikhi A, van de Ven TGM (2016b) Reusable green aerogels from cross-linked hairy nanocrystalline cellulose and modified chitosan for dye removal. Langmuir 32:11771–11779. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Yao K, Li J, Yao F, Yin Y (eds) (2016) Chitosan-based hydrogels: functions and applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 521Google Scholar
  197. Yong SK, Shrivastava M, Srivastava P, Kunhikrishnan A, Bolan N (2015) Environmental applications of chitosan and its derivatives. In: Whitacre DM (ed) Book series: reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology, vol 233. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–43. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Zahir A, Aslam Z, Kamal MS, Ahmad W, Abbas A, Shawabkeh RA (2017) Development of novel cross-linked chitosan for the removal of anionic Congo red dye. J Mol Liq 244:211–218. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Zhang M, Kohr E, Hirano S (1993) Hydrogels of chitin and chitosan. In: Nishinari K, Doi E (eds) Food hydrocolloids: structures, properties, and functions. Plenum Press, New York, pp 65–70Google Scholar
  200. Zhang L, Zeng Y, Cheng Z (2016) Removal of heavy metal ions using chitosan and modified chitosan: a review. J Mol Liq 214:175–191. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Zhao J (2016) Chitosan-based gels for the drug delivery system. In: Yao K, Li J, Yao F, Yin Y (eds) Chitosan-based hydrogels: functions and applications, chapter 6. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 263–314Google Scholar
  202. Zhao S, Zhou F, Li L, Cao M, Zuo D, Liu H (2012) Removal of anionic dyes from aqueous solutions by adsorption of chitosan-based semi-IPN hydrogel composites. Compos Part B Eng 43:1570–1578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Zhou H, Xu LL, Wen YZ, Lin KD, Zeng XM (2017a) Ring-like structured chitosan-metal hydrogel: mass production, formation mechanism and applications. J Colloid Int Sci 490:233–241. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Zhou JH, Hao BZ, Wang LB, Ma JZ, Cheng WJ (2017b) Preparation and characterization of nano-TiO2/chitosan/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) composite hydrogel and its application for removal of ionic dyes. Sep Purif Technol 176:196–199. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire Chrono-environnement, UMR 6249, UFR Sciences et TechniquesUniversité Bourgogne Franche-ComtéBesançonFrance
  2. 2.Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica G. RonzoniMilanItaly
  3. 3.Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IRD, INRA, Coll FranceCEREGEAix-en-ProvenceFrance
  4. 4.Hephaestus Advanced LaboratoryEastern Macedonia and Thrace Institute of TechnologyKavalaGreece
  5. 5.Department of ChemistryUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada

Personalised recommendations