High-altitude and long-range transport of aerosols causing regional severe haze during extreme dust storms explains why afforestation does not prevent storms
- 15 Downloads
Climate change is predicted to induce more extreme events such as storms, heat waves, drought and floods. Dust storms are frequently occurring in northern China. Those storms degrade air quality by decreasing visibility and inducing cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. To control dust storms, the Chinese government has launched a large-scale afforestation program by planting trees in arid areas, but the effectiveness of this program is still uncertain because the trajectories and altitudes of dust transport are poorly known. In particular, afforestation would be effective only if dust transport occurs at low altitudes. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the extreme dust storm from May 2 to 7, 2017, which resulted in record-breaking dust loads over northern China. For that, we used dust RGB-composite data from the Himawari-8 satellite and the cloud-aerosol lidar, moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer data, and surface monitoring data. The source regions of the dust storms were identified using the hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory model and infrared pathfinder satellite observation. Contrary to our hypothesis, results show that dust is transported at high altitude of 1.0–6.5 km over long distances from northwestern China. This finding explains why the afforestation has not been effective to prevent this storm. Results also disclose the highest particulate matter (PM) concentrations of 447.3 μg/m3 for PM2.5 and 1842.0 μg/m3 for PM10 during the dust storm. Those levels highly exceed Chinese ambient air quality standards of 75 μg/m3 for PM2.5 and 150 μg/m3 for PM10.
KeywordsRegional severe haze Massive dust storm Satellite observation Optical properties
This work was partially supported by the Department of Science and Technology of China (Nos. 2016YFC0202702; 2014BAC22B06) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21577126). This work was also supported by the Joint NSFC–ISF Research Program (No. 41561144004), jointly funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the Israel Science Foundation. Part of this work was also supported by the “Zhejiang 1000 Talent Plan” and Research Center for Air Pollution and Health in Zhejiang University. The views expressed in this presentation are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of the US EPA.
- Beniston M, Stephenson DB, Christensen OB, Ferro CAT, Frei C, Goyette S, Halsnaes K, Holt T, Jylhä K, Koffi B, Palutikof J, Schöll R, Semmler T, Woth K (2007) Future extreme events in European climate: an exploration of regional climate model projections. Clim Change 81(Suppl 1):71. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-006-9226-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dubovik O, Holben B, Eck TF, Smirnov A, Kaufman YJ, King MD, Tanré D, Slutsker I (2002) Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations. J Atmos Sci 59:590–608. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059%3c0590:VOAAOP%3e2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Evan AT, Heidinger AK, Bennartz R, Bennington V, Mahowald NM, Corrada-Bravo H, Velden CS, Myhre G, Kossin JP (2008) Ocean temperature forcing by aerosols across the Atlantic tropical cyclone development region. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 9:Q05V04. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GC001774 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Holben BN, Eck TF, Slutsker I, Tanré D, Buis JP, Setzer A, Vermote E, Reagan JA, Kaufman YJ, Nakajima T, Lavenu F, Jankowiak I, Smirnov A (1998) AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization. Remote Sens Environ 66:1–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0034-4257(98)00031-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ichinose T, Yoshida S, Hiyoshi K, Sadakane K, Takano H, Nishikawa M, Mori I, Yanagisawa R, Kawazato H, Yasuda A, Shibamoto T (2008) The effects of microbial materials adhered to Asian sand dust on allergic lung inflammation. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 55:348–357. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-007-9128-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- IPCC (2013) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis: contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Volume IPCC WGI fifth assessment report. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Mamouri RE, Ansmann A, Nisantzi A, Solomos S, Kallos G, Hadjimitsis DG (2016) Extreme dust storm over the eastern Mediterranean in September 2015: satellite, lidar, and surface observations in the Cyprus region. Atmos Chem Phys 16:13711–13724. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-13711-2016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Seinfeld JH, Pandis SN (2016) Atmospheric chemistry and physics: from air pollution to climate change, 3rd edn. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 970–972Google Scholar
- Sun T, Che H, Qi B, Wang Y, Dong Y, Xia X, Wang H, Gui K, Zheng Y, Zhao H, Ma Q, Du R, Zhang X (2018) Aerosol optical characteristics and their vertical distributions under enhanced haze pollution events: effect of the regional transport of different aerosol types over eastern China. Atmos Chem Phys 18:1–45. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-2949-2018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wang YQ, Zhang XY, Draxler D (2009) TrajStat: GIS-based software that uses various trajectory statistical analysis methods to identify potential sources from long-term air pollution measurement data. Environ Model Softw 24:938–939. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2009.01.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhang Y, Peng CH, Li WZ, Tian LX, Zhu Q, Chen H, Fang XQ, Zhang GL, Liu GB, Mu XM, Li ZB, Li SQ, Yang YZ, Wang J, Xiao XM (2016) Multiple afforestation programs accelerate the greenness in the ‘Three North’ region of China from 1982 to 2013. Ecol Indic 61:404–412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.09.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar