Eco-friendly dyeing of cotton with brown natural dye extracted from Ficus amplissima Smith leaves

  • Sudhir Kumbhar
  • Prakash Hankare
  • Sandip Sabale
  • Rajendra KumbharEmail author
Original Paper


We have extracted a new brown-coloured natural dye from the leaves of Ficus amplissima Smith using Soxhlet extraction. The dye was assessed for the colour composition by qualitative phytochemical analysis, UV–visible and FTIR spectra, and tested for the dyeing of cotton. We used alum, copper sulphate, iron sulphate and stannous chloride mordants using the pre-mordanting method. The dye was fixed on the mordanted cotton by the conventional dyeing methods and optimized dyeing conditions. Results show the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, flavones, polyphenols, saponin, tannins, terpenoids and coumarins. Optimal dyeing conditions are  7 % over the weight of fabric dye concentration, 80 °C dyeing temperature, 120 min dyeing time and 6.5 dye bath pH. The metal treatment of the cotton induces bright brown to bluish-black shades with improved colour strength and fastness properties. Overall, this new dye is eco-friendly, non-polluting, healthy and alternative to synthetic brown dyes for cotton.


Ficus amplissima Smith Brown dye Natural dye Mordants Eco-friendly 



Authors are thankful to the Principal of DKTE Society’s Textile and Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji, for providing colourimetric and fastness test facilities.

Supplementary material

10311_2018_854_MOESM1_ESM.docx (638 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 638 kb)


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryY. C. Institute of ScienceSataraIndia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryShivaji UniversityKolhapurIndia
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryJaysingpur CollegeJaysingpurIndia

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