Advertisement

Environmental Chemistry Letters

, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 1–6 | Cite as

Detection of pathogenic bacteria using nanobiosensors

  • Anurag JyotiEmail author
  • Rajesh Singh Tomar
Review

Abstract

Microbial pathogens are one of the leading causes of death in both rural and urban settings. In particular, inaccurate diagnosis leads to improper disease management. In general, the detection of pathogens relies upon their visibility and appearance using culture-based and microscopic examinations. These methods are often time-consuming and limited to laboratory-based set-up, therefore not suitable for field situations. Here, we review rapid, specific and sensitive methods for pathogen detections. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RTi-PCR) detect specific segments of pathogen genome in lesser time. But such methods require different steps and temperature profiles, and skilled personnel, thus limiting field operation. Identification of nucleic acids in clinics is limited due to complex matrices and poor availability of target nucleic acids. Nonetheless, time and step numbers can be minimised using isothermal-based amplification, which has replaced conventional amplification to some extent. Nanosensors are miniaturised devices which have been developed by integrating various components. Nanosensors include biological probes, signal transducers and enhancers. Nanosensors are suitable for field situations.

Keywords

Pathogens Nanosensors Diagnostics 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We wish to express our sincere acknowledgement to Dr. Ashok Kumar Chauhan, President, RBEF parent organization of Amity University Madhya Pradesh (AUMP), Dr. Aseem Chauhan, Additional President, RBEF and chairman of Amity University Gwalior Campus, Lt. Gen. V.K. Sharma, AVSM (Retd.), Vice Chancellor of AUMP Gwalior Campus, for providing necessary facilities.

References

  1. Cappitelli F, Polo A, Villa F (2014) Biofilm formation in food processing environments is still poorly understood and controlled. Food Eng Rev 6:1–2. doi: 10.1007/s12393-014-9077-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Craw P, Balachandran W (2012) Isothermal nucleic acid amplification technologies for point-of-care diagnostics: a critical review. Lab Chip 12:2469–2486. doi: 10.1039/c2lc40100b CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Espy MJ, Uhl JR, Sloan LM, Buckwalter SP, Jones MF, Vetter EA, Yao JDC, Wengenack NL, Rosenblatt JE, Cockerill FR III (2006) Smith TF (2006) Real-Time PCR in clinical microbiology: applications for routine laboratory testing. Clin Microbiol Rev 19:165–256. doi: 10.1128/CMR.19.1.165-256.2006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. German JB, Smilowitz JT, Zivkovic AM (2006) Lipoproteins: when size really matters. Curr Opin Coll Interf Sci 11:171–183. doi: 10.1016/j.cocis.2005.11.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hering K, Cialla D, Ackermann K, Dörfer T, Möller R, Schneidewind H, Mattheis R, Fritzsche W, Rösch P, Popp J (2008) SERS: a versatile tool in chemical and biochemical diagnostics. Anal Bioanal Chem 390:113–124. doi: 10.1002/cphc.200700591 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jyoti A, Tomar RS (2016) Nanosensors for the detection of pathogenic bacteria. Springer, Switzerland, pp 129–150. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-39303-2_5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jyoti A, Ram S, Vajpayee P, Singh G, Dwivedi PD, Jain SK, Shanker R (2010) Contamination of surface and potable water in South Asia by Salmonellae: culture-independent quantification with molecular beacon real-time PCR. Sci Total Environ 408:1256–1263. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.11.056 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kokkinos PA, Ziros PG, Bellou M, Vantarakis A (2014) Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for the detection of Salmonella in Food. Food Anal Methods 7:512–526. doi: 10.1007/s12161-013-9748-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kubista M, Andrade JM, Bengtsson M, Forootan A, Jonak J, Lind K, Sindelka R, Sjoback R, Sjogreen B, Strombom L, Stahlberg A, Zoric N (2006) The real-time polymerase chain reaction. Mol Aspects Med 27:95–125. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2005.12.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mackay I (2004) Real-time PCR in the microbiology laboratory. Clin Microbiol Infect 10:190–212. doi: 10.1111/j.1198-743X.2004.00722.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Navas J, Ortiz S, Lopez P, Jantzen MM, Lopez V, Martinez-Suarez JV (2006) Evaluation of effects of primary and secondary enrichment for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes by real-time PCR in retail ground chicken meat. Foodborne Pathog Dis 3:347–354. doi: 10.1089/fpd.2006.3.347 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Nocker A, Cheung CY, Camper AK (2006) Comparison of propidium monoazide with ethidium monoazide for differentiation of live vs. dead bacteria by selective removal of DNA from dead cells. J Microbiol Methods 67:310–320. doi: 10.1016/j.mimet.2006.04.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Park SJ, Taton TA, Mirkin CA (2002) Array-based electrical detection of DNA with nanoparticle probes. Science 295:1503–1506. doi: 10.1126/science.1067003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ram S, Vajpayee P, Shanker R (2008) Rapid culture-independent quantitative detection of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in surface waters by Real-Time PCR with molecular beacon. Environ Sci Technol 42:4577–4582. doi: 10.1021/es703033u CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Singh A, Poshtiban S, Evoy S (2013) Recent advances in bacteriophage based biosensors for food-borne pathogen detection. Sensors 13:1763–1786. doi: 10.3390/s130201763 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Wang J, Lu P, Yan J, Zhang Y, Huang L, Ali Z, Liu B, Li Z, He N (2016) Rapid and sensitive detection of RNA viruses based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification, magnetic nanoparticles and chemilumin. J Biomed Nanotechnol 12:710–716. doi: 10.1166/jbn.2016.2244 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Amity Institute of BiotechnologyAmity University Madhya PradeshGwaliorIndia

Personalised recommendations