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Environmental Chemistry Letters

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 287–294 | Cite as

Degradation of methyl-phenanthrene isomers during bioremediation of soil contaminated by residual fuel oil

  • Milan Novaković
  • Muftah Mohamed Ali Ramadan
  • Tatjana Šolević Knudsen
  • Mališa Antić
  • Vladimir Beškoski
  • Gordana Gojgić-Cvijović
  • Miroslav M. Vrvić
  • Branimir Jovančićević
Original Paper

Abstract

Phenanthrene and methyl-phenanthrenes are major aromatic pollutants originating in particular from fuel oil. Phenanthrene is usually degraded faster than methyl-phenanthrenes under geological and environmental conditions. Here, we report a preferential and accelerated biodegradation of methyl-phenanthrenes versus phenanthrene in soil contaminated by fuel oil. The polluted soil was mixed with sawdust and sand to form a homogenized biopile. The biopile was continuously sprayed with microbial consortia isolated from crude oil–contaminated soil and treated by biosurfactants and nutritive substances for biostimulation. During a 6-month bioremediation experiment, a steady increase in the relative abundance of phenanthrene compared to methyl-phenathrenes was observed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The increase was the highest for trimethyl-phenanthrenes, with a phenanthrene/trimethyl-phenanthrenes ratio increasing from 0.42 to 2.45. By contrast, the control, non-stimulated samples showed a ratio decrease from 0.85 to 0.11. Moreover, the results showed that the level of degradability depends on the number of methyl groups.

Keywords

Bioremediation Soil Residual fuel oil Phenanthrene Methyl-phenanthrene isomers Degradation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (Projects 176006 & III 43004) for supporting this research.

Supplementary material

10311_2012_354_MOESM1_ESM.doc (372 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 372 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Milan Novaković
    • 1
  • Muftah Mohamed Ali Ramadan
    • 1
  • Tatjana Šolević Knudsen
    • 2
  • Mališa Antić
    • 3
  • Vladimir Beškoski
    • 2
  • Gordana Gojgić-Cvijović
    • 2
  • Miroslav M. Vrvić
    • 1
    • 2
  • Branimir Jovančićević
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of ChemistryUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  2. 2.Center of Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and MetallurgyUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  3. 3.Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia

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