Tolerance and transcriptional analysis of Corynebacterium glutamicum on biotransformation of toxic furaldehyde and benzaldehyde inhibitory compounds

  • Pingping Zhou
  • Imrana Khushk
  • Qiuqiang Gao
  • Jie BaoEmail author
Bioenergy/Biofuels/Biochemicals - Original Paper


Furaldehydes and benzaldehydes are among the most toxic inhibitors from lignocellulose pretreatment on microbial growth and metabolism. The bioconversion of aldehyde inhibitors into less toxic alcohols or acids (biotransformation) is the prerequisite condition for efficient biorefinery fermentations. This study found that Corynebacterium glutamicum S9114 demonstrated excellent tolerance and biotransformation capacity to five typical aldehyde inhibitors including two furaldehydes: 2-furaldehyde (furfural), 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde, and three benzaldehydes: 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin), and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde (syringaldehyde). Transcription levels of 93 genes hypothesized to be responsible for five aldehydes biotransformation were examined by qRT-PCR. Multiple genes showed significantly up-regulated expression against furaldehydes or benzaldehydes. Overexpression of CGS9114_RS01115 in C. glutamicum resulted in the increased conversion of all five aldehyde inhibitors. The significant oxidoreductase genes responsible for each or multiple inhibitors biotransformation identified in this study will serve as a component of key gene device library for robust biorefinery fermentation strains development in the future biorefinery applications.


Corynebacterium glutamicum S9114 Furaldehydes Benzaldehydes Biotransformation Transcriptional response 



This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31961133006/31300070) and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFB0309302).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

10295_2019_2171_MOESM1_ESM.docx (38 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 38 kb)


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Copyright information

© Society for Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor EngineeringEast China University of Science and TechnologyShanghaiChina

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