GPS Solutions

, 23:12 | Cite as

SBAS enhancement using an independent monitor station in a local area

  • Duojie WengEmail author
  • Wu Chen
Original Article


Different approaches have been developed to monitor the integrity of the Global Positioning System (GPS). The individual approaches rely on conservative error bounds and faces great challenges in meeting stringent integrity requirements set by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). These approaches, in fact, do not compete with one another but complement one another. We propose the vertical integration of the Satellite-Based Augmentation System (SBAS) and a local monitor station in this study. When the SBAS data deviate from the local monitor, users are informed to revert to the error bounds that are directly determined from SBAS data. Otherwise, the validation criterion that the error of the SBAS corrected solution is within a threshold is exploited to tighten the SBAS error bounds. The algorithm to integrate the SBAS with the independent monitor station is described, and its performance is evaluated based on simulations and real observations. The test results show that the vertical protection level (VPL) is reduced on average from 17.60 to 11.27 m, i.e., a 30.3% reduction in VPL while the integrity is guaranteed.


Integrity Integration Local monitor SBAS 



The work described in this paper was substantially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Project No. 2016YFB0502100, 2016YFB0502101) and the European Commission/Research Grants Council (RGC) Collaboration Scheme, which is sponsored by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project No. E-PolyU 501/16). The NOAA’s National Geodetic Survey (NGS) is acknowledged for providing the data in this study. Two reviewers are thanked for their insightful comments.


  1. Bang E, Lee J, Walter T, Lee J (2016) Preliminary availability assessment to support single-frequency SBAS development in the Korean region. GPS Solut 20(3):299–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blanch J, Walter T, Enge P, Stern A, Altshuler E (2014) Evaluation of a covariance-based clock and ephemeris error bounding algorithm for SBAS. In: Proceedings ION GNSS 2014, Institute of Navigation, Tampa, September 8–12, pp 3270–3276Google Scholar
  3. Brown RG (1997) Solution of the two-failure GPS RAIM problem under worst case bias conditions: parity space approach. J Inst Navig 44(4):425–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cao Y, Zhou S, Hu X, Wu B, Zhou S, Liu L, Su R, Chang Z, He F, Zhou J (2012) The wide-area difference system for the regional satellite navigation system of COMPASS. Sci China Phys Mech Astron 55(7):1307–1315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen J, Huang Z, Li R (2017) Computation of satellite clock–ephemeris corrections using a priori knowledge for satellite-based augmentation system. GPS Solut 21(2):663–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Choy S, Kuckartz J, Dempster AG, Rizos C, Higgins M (2017) GNSS satellite-based augmentation systems for Australia. GPS Solut 21(3):835–848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Comp C et al (1998) Demonstration of WAAS aircraft approach and landing in Alaska. In: Proceedings of ION GPS 1998, Institute of Navigation, Nashville, September 15–18, pp 177–184Google Scholar
  8. Dautermann T, Felux M, Grosch A (2012) Approach service type D evaluation of the DLR GBAS testbed. GPS Solut 16(3):375–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lee J, Seo J, Park YS, Pullen S, Enge P (2011) Ionospheric threat mitigation by geometry screening in ground-based augmentation systems. J Aircr 48(4):1422–1433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Manabe H (2008) Status of MSAS: MTSAT satellite-based augmentation system. In: Proceedings of ION GNSS 2008, Institute of Navigation, Savannah, September 16–19, pp 1032–1059Google Scholar
  11. Ochieng WY, Sauer K, Walsh D, Brodin G, Griffin S, Denney M (2003) GPS integrity and potential impact on aviation safety. J Navig 56(1):51–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Oehler V, Luongo F, Boyero J, Stalford R, Trautenberg HL, Hahn J, Amarillo F, Crisci M, Schlarmann B, Flamand JF (2004) The Galileo integrity concept. In: Proceedings of ION GNSS 2004, Institute of Navigation. September, Long Beach, pp 604–615Google Scholar
  13. Oliveira J, Tiberius C (2009) Quality control in SBAS: protection levels and reliability levels. J Navig 62(3):509–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pullen S, Enge P (2007) An overview of GBAS integrity monitoring with a focus on ionospheric spatial anomalies. Indian J Radio Space Phys 36(4):249–260Google Scholar
  15. Rife J, Pullen S, Walter T, Enge P (2005) Vertical Protection Levels for A Local Airport Monitor for WAAS. In: Proceedings of ION 61st AM, Institute of Navigation, Cambridge, June 24–27, pp 745–758Google Scholar
  16. RTCA (2006) Minimum operational performance standards for global positioning system/wide area augmentation system airborne equipment, RTCA DO-229D. RTCA, Inc., December 2006Google Scholar
  17. RTCA (2017) Minimum operational performance standards for global positioning system for GPS Local Area Airborne Equipment, RTCA DO-253A. RTCA, Inc., July 2017Google Scholar
  18. Seynat C, Flament D, Brocard D (2009) EGNOS Status Update. In: Proceedings ION GNSS 2009, Institute of Navigation, Savannah, September 16–19, pp 3457–3483Google Scholar
  19. Shively C, Niles R, Hsiao T (2006) Performance and availability analysis of a simple Local Airport Position Domain Monitor for WAAS. Navigation 53(2):97–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Walter T, Enge P, DeCleene B (2003) Integrity Lessons from the WAAS Integrity Performance Panel (WIPP). In: Proceedings of ION NTM 2003, Institute of Navigation, Anaheim, January 22–24, pp 183–194Google Scholar
  21. Walter T, Pullen S, Rife J (2005) The Advantages of Local Monitoring and VHF Data Broadcast for SBAS. In: Proceedings of the European Navigation Conference GNSS 2005, Munich, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  22. Wang J, Ober P (2009) On the availability of fault detection and exclusion in GNSS receiver autonomous integrity monitoring. J Navig 62(2):251–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wang Z, Macabiau C, Zhang J, Escher AC (2014) Prediction and analysis of GBAS integrity monitoring availability at LinZhi airport. GPS Solut 18(1):27–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Weng D, Ji S, Chen W (2015) Assessing and mitigating the effects of the ionospheric variability on DGPS. GPS Solut 19(1):107–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityHong KongChina

Personalised recommendations