GPS Solutions

, 23:1 | Cite as

An enhanced cycle slip repair algorithm for real-time multi-GNSS, multi-frequency data processing

  • Tao LiEmail author
  • Stavros Melachroinos
Original Article


Cycle slip detection and repair are crucial quality control steps in high-precision global navigation satellite system (GNSS) positioning using carrier phase measurements. Correct detection and repair of cycle slips can avoid repeated integer ambiguity resolution in real-time kinematic (RTK) or long convergence time in precise point positioning (PPP), especially in the context of multi-GNSS and multi-frequency cases. We introduce a generalized procedure for cycle slip detection and repair. The cycle slip detection is carried out using quality control theory on a single satellite–receiver pair. Upon successful detection, integer least-squares estimation is applied to repair the cycle slip vectors. Then if the cycle slips are detected but not repaired, and no cycle slip exists in the coming epochs, an enhanced repair algorithm, which uses measurements over multiple epochs, is developed. The mathematical model for cycle slip repair is strengthened to allow for higher success rate and its implementation is efficiently accomplished using Kalman filter to suit real-time applications. The generalized procedure and the enhanced algorithm for repair are theoretically analyzed for the dual- and triple-frequency cases under different elevations and ionospheric disturbances. Both high- and low-sampling rate MGEX data with artificial cycle slips are processed, and results indicate that the generalized procedure performs well in benign situations and a higher repair success rate is obtained by implementing the enhanced algorithm in extreme conditions.


GNSS Cycle slip detection and repair Quality control Success rate 



This research has been supported by the Cooperative Research Centre for Spatial Information (CRC-SI), whose activities are funded by the Business Cooperative Research Centres Programme (Grant no. 1.14). The International GNSS Service (IGS) Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) station providers are also acknowledged. We thank Dr John Dawson and Professor Thomas Herring for their valuable comments and suggestions. Discussions with Dr Balwinder Arora have also been helpful.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geoscience AustraliaCanberraAustralia
  2. 2.Cooperative Research Centre for Spatial InformationMelbourneAustralia

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