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Temperature changes on the root surface during application of warm vertical compaction using three different obturation units

  • Christian DiegritzEmail author
  • Oliver Gerlitzki
  • Christina Fotiadou
  • Matthias Folwaczny
Original Article


This study aimed to determine the temperature increase on the root surface during warm vertical compaction using three different obturation systems. Forty-five human single-rooted premolars were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups of 15 teeth each for obturation with a System B unit, an Elements Obturation Unit, or a B&L SuperEndo Alpha II unit. All teeth were filled using the continuous wave of condensation technique with a set temperature of 200 °C. The temperature measurements were made with an infrared camera at 3 s (T0) and 1 min (T1) following activation of the heat plugger. T0 ranged between 48.1 and 84 °C depending on the obturation system. The mean value for T0 showed significant differences between various obturation systems (p = 0.001). The temperature increase on the root surface during the application of vertical compaction shows considerable variability depending on the obturation system.


Continuous wave of condensation Gutta-percha Infrared thermography Root canal obturation Root surface temperature 



The work was supported by the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. All procedures performed in this study were performed in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.


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Copyright information

© The Society of The Nippon Dental University 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Conservative Dentistry and Peridontology, University HospitalLudwig-Maximilians-UniversityMunichGermany
  2. 2.VaterstettenGermany

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