Advertisement

Odontology

, Volume 107, Issue 3, pp 285–290 | Cite as

Non-invasive analysis of bleaching effect of hydrogen peroxide on enamel by reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM): study of series of cases

  • Alfredo De Rosa
  • Dario Di StasioEmail author
  • Dorina Lauritano
  • Rossella Santoro
  • Andrea Marotta
  • Angelo Itro
  • Alberta Lucchese
Original Article
  • 135 Downloads

Abstract

The aim of this study is to evaluate in vivo the effects of in-office tooth whitening hydrogen peroxide (HP) agent on enamel-microstructured surface by a reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). Ten healthy volunteers assisted at the Dental School presenting teeth with vital pulp were selected. The 35% HP whiteness product was applied in two visits on discolored teeth, 1-week interval between, via 20-min applications. A commercially available hand-held RCM (Vivascope3000®, Lucid, Rochester, NY, USA) was used to image in vivo the dental surface of the selected tooth of each volunteer. Twenty upper central incisors’ vestibular surfaces were imaged, before bleaching (T0), immediately after (T1) and 1 week later (T2). The peculiar structure of the enamel was seen at T0. After bleaching, white reflective circular bodies were found all over the teeth surfaces, which disappear 1 week later (T2). When the HP gel® was imaged, the same white circular areas were observed. Going deeper, the regular enamel architecture was preserved. Textural analysis of the images in T0 and T2 was performed: GLCM parameters were extracted. Mann–Whitney U test was performed to evaluate statistical differences between two groups of data (p > 0.05). Finally, 35 prisms were randomly selected from T0 and T2 image and diameters were measured; a paired t test was performed (p = 0.381). The RCM is a promisor tool for investigating the features of enamel in vivo, immediately after bleaching procedures, as well as longitudinally.

Keywords

Bleaching Hydrogen peroxide Confocal laser scanning microscopy In vivo imaging Image analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We want to acknowledge all the patients involved in the present study for their kindly collaboration and indirect support to this study with their smiles. Conceived and designed the experiments: AL, DD, DA, IA. Performed the clinical examination: AL, DD, DA. Performed the experiments: AL, DD. Analyzed the data: AL, DD, DA, SR, MA. Wrote this paper: DD, DA, AL, SR, DL, IA. Performed the statistical analysis: DD.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Dey S, Pandey V, Kumar A, Awasthi N, Sahu A, Pujari SC. In vitro comparison of impact of different bleaching agents on the microhardness of enamel. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2016;17:258–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Matis BA, Wang G, Matis JI, Cook NB, Eckert GJ. White diet: is it necessary during tooth whitening? Oper Dent. 2015;40:235–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kershaw S, Newton JT, Williams DM. The influence of tooth colour on the perceptions of personal characteristics among female dental patients: comparisons of unmodified, decayed and ‘whitened’ teeth. Br Dent J. 2008;204:256–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Klaric E, Rakic M, Sever I, Milat O, Par M, Tarle Z. Enamel and dentin microhardness and chemical composition after experimental light-activated bleaching. Oper Dent. 2015;40:32–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ghanbarzadeh M, Ahrari F, Akbari M, Hamzei H. Microhardness of demineralized enamel following home bleaching and laser-assisted in office bleaching. J Clin Exp Dent. 2015;7:405–09.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cardoso PC, Reis A, Loguercio A, Vieira LC, Baratieri LN. Clinical effectiveness and tooth sensitivity associated with different bleaching times for a 10 percent carbamide peroxide gel. J Am Dent Assoc. 2010;141:1213–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Carey CM. Tooth whitening: what we now know. J Evid Based Dent Pract. 2014;14:70–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fugaro JO, Nordahl I, Fugaro OJ, Matis BA, Mjör IA. Pulp reaction to vital bleaching. Oper Dent. 2004;29:363–68.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    ten Cate JM, van Loveren C. Fluoride mechanisms. Dent Clin North Am. 1999;43:713–42.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gjorgievska ES, Nicholson JW. A preliminary study of enamel remineralization by dentifrices based on Recaldent (CPP-ACP) and Novamin(calcium-sodium phosphosilicate). Acta Odontol Latinoam. 2010;23:234–39.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jeong SH, Jang SO, Kim KN, Kwon HK, Park YD, Kim BI. Remineralization potential of new toothpaste containing nano-hydroxyapatite. Key Eng Mater. 2006;309:537–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Goldberg M, Grootveld M, Lynch E. Undesirable and adverse effects of tooth-whitening products: a review. Clin Oral Investig. 2010;14:1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Alessandri Bonetti G, Zanarini M, Incerti Parenti S, Lattuca M, Marchionni S, Gatto MR. Evaluation of enamel surfaces after bracket debonding: an in-vivo study with scanning electron microscopy. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011;140:696–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Coceska E, Gjorgievska E, Coleman NJ, Gabric D, Slipper IJ, Stevanovic M, Nicholson JW. Enamel alteration following tooth bleaching and remineralization. J Microsc. 2016;262:232–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lucchese A, Pilolli GP, Petruzzi M, Crincoli V, Scivetti M, Favia G. Analysis of collagen distribution in human crown dentin by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Ultrastruct Pathol. 2008;32:107–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pilolli GP, Lauritano D, Lucchese A, Di Stasio D, Petruzzi M, Marrone G, Serpico R, Favia G. In vitro analysis of marginal adaptation and resistance of different dental composites: stereo and scanning electron microscopic evaluation. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2015;29:82–8.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Grassia V, Gentile E, Di Stasio D, Jamilian A, Matarese G, D’Apuzzo F, Santoro R, Perillo L, Serpico R, Lucchese A. In vivo confocal microscopy analysis ofenamel defects after orthodontic treatment: A preliminary study. Ultrastruct Pathol. 2016;40:317–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Contaldo M, Serpico R, Lucchese A. In vivo imaging of enamel by reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM): non-invasive analysis of dental surface. Odontology. 2014;102:325–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Contaldo M, Di Stasio D, Santoro R, Laino L, Perillo L, Petruzzi M, Lauritano D, Serpico R, Lucchese A. Non-invasive in vivo visualization of enamel defects by reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). Odontology. 2015;103:177–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schneider CA, Rasband WS, Eliceiri KW. NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis. Nat Methods. 2012;9:671–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mostaço-Guidolin LB, Ko AC, Wang F, Xiang B, Hewko M, Tian G, Major A, Shiomi M, Sowa MG. Collagen morphology and texture analysis: from statistics to classification. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tay LY, Kose C, Herrera DR, Reis A, Loguercio AD. Long-term efficacy of in-office and at-home bleaching: a 2-year double-blind randomized clinical trial. Am J Dent. 2012;25:199–204.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Torres CR, Crastechini E, Feitosa FA, Pucci CR, Borges AB. Influence of pH on the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide whitening. Oper Dent. 2014;39:61–8.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Parreiras SO, Vianna P, Kossatz S, Loguercio AD, Reis A. Effects of light activated in-office bleaching on permeability, microhardness, and mineral content of enamel. Oper Dent. 2014;39:225–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Borges AB, Zanatta RF, Barros AC, Silva LC, Pucci CR, Torres CR. Effect of hydrogen peroxide concentration on enamel color and microhardness. Oper Dent. 2015;40:96–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Matis BA, Cochran MA, Eckert G. Review of the effectiveness of various tooth whitening systems. Oper Dent. 2009;34:230–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Markovic L, Fotouhi K, Lorenz H, Jordan RA, Gaengler P, Zimmer S. Effects of bleaching agents on human enamel light reflectance. Oper Dent. 2010;35:405–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dahl T, He GX, Samuels G. Effect of hydrogen peroxide on the viscosity of a hydroxyethylcellulose-based gel. Pharm Res. 1998;15:1137–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lucchese A, Gentile E, Romano A, Maio C, Laino L, Serpico R. The potential role of in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy for evaluating oral cavity lesions: a systematic review. J Oral Pathol Med. 2016;45:723–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society of The Nippon Dental University 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Multidisciplinary Department of Medical-Surgical and Dental SpecialtiesUniversity of Campania Luigi VanvitelliNaplesItaly
  2. 2.Department of Medicine and SurgeryUniversity of Milano BicoccaMonzaItaly

Personalised recommendations