, Volume 107, Issue 3, pp 374–382 | Cite as

Internal and marginal adaptation of high-viscosity bulk-fill composites in class II cavities placed with different adhesive strategies

  • Rainer HaakEmail author
  • Thomas Näke
  • Kyung-Jin Park
  • Dirk Ziebolz
  • Felix Krause
  • Hartmut Schneider
Original Article


The aim of this study was to evaluate internal and marginal adaptation of high-viscosity bulk-fill composites to enamel and dentin with a self-etch (SE) and an etch-and-rinse adhesive (ER) without and with artificial aging. 128 MOD cavities in extracted human molars were prepared, randomly assigned to 8 groups (n = 16), bonded with either OptiBond FL (OFL, ER) or Xeno V+ (X, SE), and restored in 4 mm horizontal bulk layers with SonicFill (SF), Tetric EvoCeram Bulk fill (TEC), and x-tra fil (XF). Incremental layering technique with Premise (P) served as control. Half of the specimens each (n = 8) were subjected either to water storage (1 day, 37 °C) or prolonged storage (180 days) and thereafter thermocycling. Replicas were analyzed for marginal gap formation. After sectioning, interfacial adhesive defects were assessed. Results were statistical analyzed. (1) Internal adaptation: Except for TEC/OFL at enamel without artificial aging, no significant differences between bulk-fill composites and the control were observed. All groups at dentin with OFL showed less internal adhesive defects than that with X (p < 0.05). (2) Marginal adaptation: No significant differences were observed between bulk-fill composites and control except for P after artificial aging (p > 0.05). All other composites, regardless of artificial aging, formed significantly more marginal gaps at enamel with X compared to with OFL (p ≤ 0.05). Simplified restorations with high-viscosity bulk-fill composite showed comparable internal and marginal adaptation to incrementally placed fillings. A superiority of the 3-step ER approach was seen compared to the 1-step SE adhesive irrespective of the bulk-fill composite used.


Bulk-fill composite Internal adaptation Marginal quality Etch and rinse Self-etch 



The intact, non-carious, unrestored human molars were selected out of a pool of collected teeth in accordance with an approved protocol of the Ethics Committee of the University Leipzig, Germany (no. 299-10-04102010).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

 The restoration materials were provided by Dentsply Sirona GmbH, Ivoclar Vivadent AG and Voco GmbH.

Supplementary material

10266_2018_402_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (69 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 69 KB)


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Copyright information

© The Society of The Nippon Dental University 2019
corrected publication 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cariology, Endodontology and PeriodontologyUniversity of LeipzigLeipzigGermany

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