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Odontology

, Volume 107, Issue 3, pp 271–284 | Cite as

Exosomes in perspective: a potential surrogate for stem cell therapy

Review Article

Abstract

Exosomes as a unique subtype of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) have attracted increasing interest in recent years in the fields of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) research. Studies have confirmed that exosomes derived from MSCs preserve immunosuppressive phenotype and can mimic therapeutic benefits of their parent cells. This review briefly summarizes most recent findings on the potential of exosomes as an alternative of therapeutic MSCs, focusing on the role of MSCs and their secreted exosomes in regulation of immune cells, preclinical and clinical evidence of therapeutic outcomes of MSC exosomes, and the biodistribution and pharmacokinetic profile of systemically administered exosomes. It is appreciated that exosomes from MSCs of different sources have variable contents including inflammatory mediators, tropic factors, signaling molecules, and nucleic acids (DNA, mRNA, microRNA and long non-coding RNA). Diverse functions of exosomes derived from different sources are expected. More importantly, exosomes isolated in vitro may not mirror that from in vivo, where donor MSCs are exposed to specific disease or injury-related conditions. Simulating in vivo microenvironment by pretreatment of MSCs with relevant chemical mediators may lead to their secretion of therapeutically more efficient exosomes/sEVs. However, we know very little about the key molecules involved and the differences between exosomes released under different conditions. These issues would be of tremendous interest to preclinical research that pursues exosome biology-underlain therapeutic mechanisms of MSCs. Further studies are expected to demonstrate the superiority of MSC-derived exsomes/sEVs as a pharmaceutical entity with regard to efficacy, safety, and practicability.

Keywords

Bone marrow stromal cells Mesenchymal stromal cells Extracellular vesicles Immune regulation Tregs Pain 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author’s work was supported by the Maryland Stem Cell Foundation grant 2014-MSCRFI-0584 and National Institutes of Health grant DE025137.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© The Society of The Nippon Dental University 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neural and Pain Sciences, School of Dentistry, & Program in NeuroscienceUniversity of MarylandBaltimoreUSA

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