We investigated the relationship between the number of pairs of posterior teeth and metabolic syndrome (MetS), abdominal obesity (AO), and obesity, among Japanese adults. In 2005, 2,807 Japanese adults aged 25–74 years participated in the Survey of Dental Diseases and the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Based on the survey data, BMI, AO (JAS) determined by the Japan Atherosclerosis Society, AO (IDF) by the International Diabetes Federation, and MetS were assessed. Total functional tooth units (t-FTUs) were scored with pairs of opposing posterior teeth, including artificial teeth. Subjects were divided into three categories of chewing ability based on the score of t-FTUs: Poor (if score ≤ 9), Good (if score = 10–11), and Complete (if score = 12). The relationships between chewing ability and BMI ≥ 25, BMI ≥ 30, AO (JAS), AO (IDF), and MetS were tested using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The chewing ability was significantly associated with MetS, AO, and obesity in the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Adjusted OR of “Poor” compared to “Complete” were 1.51 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24–1.84) for BMI ≥ 25, 2.10 (95% CI 1.40–3.14) for BMI ≥ 30, 1.31 (95% CI 1.07–1.61) for AO (JAS), 1.40 (95% CI 1.15–1.70) for AO (IDF), and 1.34 (95% CI 1.04–1.72) for MetS. All were statistically significant. Preventing tooth loss and maintaining pairs of good chewing ability may be important factors in preventing MetS, AO, and obesity.
Functional tooth units Molar Metabolic syndrome Middle-aged Japanese National survey
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
The authors received no funds and grants for this study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Alberti KG, Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ, Cleeman JI, Donato KA, et al. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the international diabetes federation task force on epidemiology and prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation. 2009;120(16):1640–5. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192644. (Epub 2009/10/05).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lakka HM, Laaksonen DE, Lakka TA, Niskanen LK, Kumpusalo E, Tuomilehto J, et al. The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. JAMA. 2002;288(21):2709–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yoshiike N, Matsumura Y, Zaman MM, Yamaguchi M. Descriptive epidemiology of body mass index in Japanese adults in a representative sample from the National Nutrition Survey 1990–1994. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998;22(7):684–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nakamura K, Okamura T, Kanda H, Hayakawa T, Okayama A, Ueshima H, et al. Medical costs of obese Japanese: a 10-year follow-up study of National Health Insurance in Shiga, Japan. Eur J Public Health. 2007;17(5):424–9. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckl271. (Epub 2007/01/05).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ikebe K, Matsuda K, Morii K, Nokubi T, Ettinger RL. The relationship between oral function and body mass index among independently living older Japanese people. Int J Prosthodont. 2006;19(6):539–46.Google Scholar
The Statistical Analysis Committee on the Survey of Dental Diseases. Comprehensive guide to the survey of dental diseases (2005). Tokyo, Japan: Oral Health Association; 2007. pp. 130–3. (In Japanese).Google Scholar
Examination Committee of Criteria for ‘Obesity Disease’ in Japan, Japan Society for the Study of Obesity. New criteria for ‘obesity disease’ in Japan. Circ J. 2002;66(11):987–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hsu KJ, Yen YY, Lan SJ, Wu YM, Chen CM, Lee HE. Relationship between remaining teeth and self-rated chewing ability among population aged 45 years or older in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2011;27(10):457–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kjms.2011.06.006. (Epub 2011/07/27).Google Scholar
Yanagisawa T, Ueno M, Shinada K, Ohara S, Kawaguchi Y. Validity of self-reported masticatory function in a Japanese population. J Dent Health. 2010;60(3):214–23.Google Scholar
Otsuka R, Imai T, Kato Y, Ando F, Shimokata H. Relationship between number of metabolic syndrome components and dietary factors in middle-aged and elderly Japanese subjects. Hypertens Res. 2010;33(6):548–54. https://doi.org/10.1038/hr.2010.29. (Epub 2010/03/12).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johansson I, Tidehag P, Lundberg V, Hallmans G. Dental status, diet and cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged people in northern Sweden. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1994;22(6):431–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Joshipura KJ, Willett WC, Douglass CW. The impact of edentulousness on food and nutrient intake. J Am Dent Assoc. 1996;127(4):459–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sakata T, Yoshimatsu H, Kurokawa M. Hypothalamic neuronal histamine: implications of its homeostatic control of energy metabolism. Nutrition. 1997;13(5):403–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fujise T, Yoshimatsu H, Kurokawa M, Fukagawa K, Nakata M, Sakata T. Food consistency modulates eating volume and speed through brain histamine in rat. Brain Res Bull. 1993;32(5):555–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tanaka H, Kokubo Y. Epidemiology of obesity in Japan. Jap Med Assoc J. 2005;48(1):34–41.Google Scholar
Kohro T, Furui Y, Mitsutake N, Fujii R, Morita H, Oku S, et al. The Japanese national health screening and intervention program aimed at preventing worsening of the metabolic syndrome. Int Heart J. 2008;49(2):193–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar