, Volume 107, Issue 1, pp 103–110 | Cite as

Polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage force kinetics of high- and low-viscosity dimethacrylate- and ormocer-based bulk-fill resin composites

  • Tobias T. TauböckEmail author
  • Franziska Jäger
  • Thomas Attin
Original Article


The aim of the present study was to investigate polymerization shrinkage, shrinkage force development, and degree of monomer conversion of high- and low-viscosity dimethacrylate- and ormocer-based bulk-fill resin composites. Two flowable bulk-fill composites (SDR, x-tra base), two high-viscosity bulk-fill composites (Bulk Ormocer, SonicFill), and two conventional composite materials (Esthet X flow, Esthet X HD) were photoactivated for 20 s at 1275 mW/cm2. Linear polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage force were recorded in real time using custom-made devices, and the force rate and time to achieve maximum force rate were determined. Degree of conversion was measured using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD post-hoc test, and bivariate correlations were computed (α = 0.05). The category of high-viscosity bulk-fill resin composites showed the significantly lowest polymerization shrinkage and force development. Within the tested flowable composite materials, SDR bulk-fill generated the significantly lowest shrinkage forces during polymerization and attained the significantly highest degree of conversion. Strong positive correlations were revealed between shrinkage force and both linear polymerization shrinkage (r = 0.902) and maximum force rate (r = 0.701). Linear shrinkage and shrinkage force both showed a negative correlation with filler volume content (r = − 0.832 and r = − 0.704, respectively). Bulk-fill resin composites develop lower shrinkage forces than their conventional flowable and high-viscosity counterparts, respectively, which supports their use for restoring high C-factor posterior cavities. Overall, bulk-fill composites with high filler amount and low force rate showed the most favorable shrinkage force characteristics.


Bulk-fill composite Ormocer Degree of conversion Polymerization contraction Shrinkage stress 



This study was supported by the authors’ institution. The paper is part of the master thesis of F. Jäger, University of Zurich, supervised by T. T. Tauböck and T. Attin. The authors thank VOCO (Cuxhaven, Germany) for providing the experimental ormocer-based composite material Bulk Ormocer (meanwhile marketed under the trade name Admira Fusion x-tra). The statistical analysis was reviewed by PD Dr. Malgorzata Roos, Department of Biostatistics, University of Zurich.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© The Society of The Nippon Dental University 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tobias T. Tauböck
    • 1
    Email author
  • Franziska Jäger
    • 1
  • Thomas Attin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Preventive Dentistry, Periodontology and Cariology, Center for Dental MedicineUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland

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