The present study investigated the regional blood flow, tissue distribution, local anesthetic action, and hemodynamic effects of mepivacaine containing dexmedetomidine hydrochloride (DEX) in rats. Blood flow was measured after injection of 0.5% mepivacaine (M group), 12.5 µg/ml DEX (D group), or 0.5% mepivacaine containing 12.5 µg/ml DEX (DM group) into the upper lip. Mepivacaine distribution was autoradiographically observed in maxillary bone resected after injection of 0.5% 3H-mepivacaine (HM group) or 0.5% 3H-mepivacaine containing 12.5 µg/ml DEX (DHM group) into the palatal mucosa adjacent to the right maxillary first molar. Radioactivity was also measured using a liquid scintillation counter. SEP were measured to analyze anesthetic action. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured to compare hemodynamic effect. The addition of DEX significantly decreased blood flow compared to M group from 10 to 60 min after injection. The addition of DEX significantly increased the amount of radioactivity compared to HM group in the palatal mucosa from 5 to 60 min after injection and in the body of the maxilla from 2 to 60 min after injection. Maximum blood radioactivity was measured at 5 min after injection in HM group and 50 min after injection in DHM group. The addition of DEX significantly decreased peak-to-peak amplitudes compared to M group until 60 min after injection. No significant hemodynamic differences were observed. DEX enhances the action of mepivacaine in reducing regional blood flow prolongs its tissue retention, and increases the local anesthetic action without affecting hemodynamics on local administration.
Dexmedetomidine Mepivacaine Vasoconstriction Ischemic heart disease and hypertension Pharmacokinetics
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The support of the research staff at both the Department of Dental Anesthesiology, The Nippon Dental University School of life Dentistry at Tokyo and Section of Radioisotope Research, Center of Odontology, The Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo is gratefully acknowledged.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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