Association between periodontitis and chronic migraine: a case–control study
- 115 Downloads
The aim of this investigation was to examine whether chronic periodontitis (CP) is a risk indicator of chronic migraine (CM). We performed a case–control study consisted of 102 cases (patients diagnosed with CM) and 91 controls (non-CM individuals) matched by age and gender. Full-mouth periodontal charts, demographic, medical, clinical, as well as neurological data were obtained. In addition, high sensitive C-reactive protein serum levels were determined from blood samples of both cases (taken during migraine interictal period) and controls. The prevalence of CP was significantly higher in patients with CM compared to those without CM (58.8 vs. 30.8%, p < 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis showed that CP was significantly associated with the presence of CM, independently of well-known chronifying factors of migraine (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.2–4.7; p = 0.012). Based on our results, CP could be considered as a risk indicator of CM. However, more evidence is necessary to investigate if this relationship is causal or not.
KeywordsPeriodontitis Migraine Headache Risk factors Chronification
Y. Leira is supported by a fellowship from the Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela (IDIS) and is the recipient of the 2017 SEPA-Sunstar International Training Grant.
This study was partially supported by grants from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness—Institute of Health Carlos III (PI15/01578). The funders had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest in relation to this paper.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 8.Chapple ILC, Genco R, Working group 2 of the joint EFP/AAP workshop. Diabetes and periodontal diseases: consensus report of the Joint EFP/AAP Workshop on Periodontitis and Systemic Diseases. J Clin Periodontol. 2013;40(Suppl. 14):106–12.Google Scholar
- 9.Tonetti MS, van Dyke TE, Working group 1 of the joint EFP/AAP workshop. Periodontitis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: consensus report of the Joint EFP/AAP Workshop on Periodontitis and Systemic Diseases. J Clin Periodontol. 2013;40(Suppl. 14):24–9.Google Scholar
- 12.Linden GJ, Herzberg MC, Working group 4 of the joint EFP/AAP workshop. Periodontitis and systemic diseases: a record of discussions of working group 4 of the Joint EFP/AAP Workshop on Periodontitis and Systemic Diseases. J Clin Periodontol. 2013;40(Suppl. 14):20–3.Google Scholar
- 19.Ainamo J, Bay I. Problems and proposals for recording gingivitis and plaque. Int Dent J. 1975;25:229–35.Google Scholar
- 20.Holtfreter B, Albandar JM, Dietrich T, Dye BA, Eaton KA, Eke PI, Papapanou PN, Kocher T, Joint EU/USA Periodontal Epidemiology Working Group. Standards for reporting chronic periodontitis prevalence and severity in epidemiologic studies: proposed standards from de Joint EU/USA Periodontal Epidemiology Working Group. J Clin Periodontol. 2015;42:407–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Eke PI, Page RC, Wei L, Thornton-Evans G, Genco RJ. Update of the case definitions for population-based surveillance of periodontitis. J Periodontol. 2012;83:14–54.Google Scholar
- 31.Katsarava Z, Dzagnidze A, Kukava M, Mirvelashvili E, Dijbuti M, Janelidze M, Jensen R, Stovner LJ, Steiner TJ, Lifting The Burden: The Global Campaign to Reduce the Burden of Headache Worldwide and the Russian Linguistic Subcommittee of the International Headache Society. Primary headache disorders in the Republic of Georgia: prevalence and risk factors. Neurology. 2009;73:1796–803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar