Brassica rapa show a wide range of morphological variations. In particular, the leaf morphologies of the Japanese traditional leafy vegetables Mizuna and Mibuna (Brassica rapa L. subsp. nipposinica L. H. Bailey) are distinctly different, even though they are closely related cultivars that are easy to cross. In addition to the differences in the gross morphology of leaves, some cultivars of Mibuna (Kyo-nishiki) have many trichomes on its leaves, whereas Mizuna (Kyo-mizore) does not. To identify the genes responsible for the different number of trichomes, we performed a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of Mizuna and Mibuna. To construct linkage maps for these cultivars, we used RNA-seq data to develop cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers. We also performed a restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) analysis to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Two QTL analyses were performed in different years, and both analyses indicated that the largest effect was found on LG A9. Expression analyses showed that a gene homologous to GLABRA1 (GL1), a transcription factor implicated in trichome development in Arabidopsis thaliana, and the sequences 3′-flanking (downstream) of BrGL1, differed considerably between Mizuna (Kyo-mizore) and Mibuna (Kyo-nishiki). These results indicate that BrGL1 on LG A9 is one of the candidate genes responsible for the difference in trichome number between Mizuna and Mibuna. Detecting genes that are responsible for morphological variations allows us to better understand the breeding history of Mizuna and Mibuna.
Brassica rapaQTL analysis Trichomes RAD-seq
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We thank Drs. Ferjani Ali for taking Scanning Electron Microscope pictures and Takahiro Kawanabe and Kaoru O. Yoshiyama for helpful discussion throughout our study. This research was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (JP16H01472) and MEXT-Supported Program for the Strategic Research Foundation at Private Universities (2015–2019: S1511023) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology of Japan to SK. This work was financially supported by grants-in-aid from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP2287003 and JP24770047) and research grants from Kyoto Sangyo University to S.K, and the Sasakawa Scientific Research Grant from The Japan Science Society to Y.K.
YK, HN, NK, and SK conceived and designed the project. YK, KK, KI, MY, HK, AN, KY, and SK performed the experiments. YK, HN, AN, and SK wrote the paper.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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