Effect of epicuticular wax crystals on the localization of artificially deposited sub-micron carbon-based aerosols on needles of Cryptomeria japonica
- 301 Downloads
Elucidation of the mechanism of adsorption of particles suspended in the gas-phase (aerosol) to the outer surfaces of leaves provides useful information for understanding the mechanisms of the effect of aerosol particles on the growth and physiological functions of trees. In the present study, we examined the localization of artificially deposited sub-micron-sized carbon-based particles on the surfaces of needles of Cryptomeria japonica, a typical Japanese coniferous tree species, by field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The clusters (aggregates) of carbon-based particles were deposited on the needle surface regions where epicuticular wax crystals were sparsely distributed. By contrast, no clusters of the particles were found on the needle surface regions with dense distribution of epicuticular wax crystals. Number of clusters of carbon-based particles per unit area showed statistically significant differences between regions with sparse epicuticular wax crystals and those with dense epicuticular wax crystals. These results suggest that epicuticular wax crystals affect distribution of carbon-based particles on needles. Therefore, densely distributed epicuticular wax crystals might prevent the deposition of sub-micron-sized carbon-based particles on the surfaces of needles of Cryptomeria japonica to retain the function of stomata.
KeywordsCarbon-based particle Cryptomeria japonica Epicuticular wax crystal Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) Sub-micron-sized particle
We thank Mr. Shin-ichi Sagawa, Dr. Masao Gen, and Ms. Fong Zyin Lim (Lenggoro lab), Graduate School of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering (BASE), Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, for technical support related to exposure of substrates to carbon-based particles. This work was supported by Grants-in-Aid from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (nos. 20120009, 20120010, 24380090, 25850121, 26420761, 15H04527 and 15K07508).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Colvile RN (2002) Emissions, dispersion and atmospheric transformation. In: Bell JNB, Treshow M (eds) Air pollution and plant life, 2nd edn. Wiley, England, pp 23–42Google Scholar
- Esau K (1977) Trichomes. In: Esau K (ed) Anatomy of seed plants, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 94–96Google Scholar
- Fowler D (2002) Pollutant deposition and uptake by vegetation. In: Bell JNB, Treshow M (eds) Air pollution and plant life, 2nd edn. Wiley, England, pp 43–68Google Scholar
- Freer-Smith PH, Beckett KP, Taylor G (2005) Deposition velocities to Sorbus aria, Acer campestre, Populus deltoides x trichocarpa ‘Beaupré’, Pinus nigra and × Cupressocyparis leylandii for coarse, fine and ultra-fine particles in the urban environment. Environ Pollut 133:157–167CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Neinhuis C, Barthlott W (1997a) The tree leaf surface: structure and function. In: Rennenberg H, Eschrich W, Ziegler H (eds) Trees—contribution to modern tree physiology. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, pp 3–18Google Scholar
- WHO (World Health Organization) (2012) Health effects of black carbon. WHO Regional Office for Europe, BonnGoogle Scholar
- Yamaguchi M, Otani Y, Takeda K, Lenggoro IW, Ishida A, Yazaki K, Noguchi K, Sase H, Murao N, Nakaba S, Yamane K, Kuroda K, Sano Y, Funada R, Izuta T (2012) Effects of long-term exposure to black carbon particles on growth and gas exchange rates of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica seedlings. Asian J Atmos Environ 6:259–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yamaguchi M, Otani Y, Li P, Nagao H, Lenggoro IW, Ishida A, Yazaki K, Noguchi K, Nakaba S, Yamane K, Kuroda K, Sano Y, Funada R, Izuta T (2014) Effect of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate particles on growth and gas exchange rates of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica seedlings. Atmos Environ 97:493–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar