Airborne sperm of Conocephalum conicum (Conocephalaceae)
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We have obtained the first momentary photographs of sperms just as they are discharged from the antheridium of a liverwort, Conocephalum conicum, and have succeeded in monitoring the airborne sperms of bryophytes under field conditions. Airborne sperm of liverworts seems to be an effective strategy for raising the efficiency of fertilization between male and female plants separated in a drought environment.
KeywordsSperm Fertilization Conocephalum conicum
We thank S. Takeshita and T. Maehara for technical advice on use of the digital video camera and also thank H. Fujita for helpful comments on the manuscript.
Movie S1 (MOV 867 kb)
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