An empirical study on the commercial adoption of digital currencies

  • Ioanna Roussou
  • Emmanouil StiakakisEmail author
  • Angelo Sifaleras
Original Article


Digital currencies are rapidly evolving Internet currencies that have been increasingly attracting academic, governmental, banking, and business interest. This paper aims to present the commercial perspective towards the adoption of digital currencies as a means of daily transactions. Considering digital currencies as a pioneering technological innovation, this study proposes a research model that combines the innovation decision process model with the technology acceptance model, adding the construct of perceived security in order to investigate the factors that affect the actual use of digital currencies. The collected data from 254 respondents, derived from an online questionnaire-based survey addressed to commercial users, were further analyzed by using structural equation modeling. The findings of this research have significant implications for academics by bridging the gap in the literature about the factors affecting digital currencies’ commercial adoption and for practitioners concerning decision-making on their adoption and use. More specifically, this study stresses the role of perceived security and the fact that managers need to build their policies regarding transactions in digital currencies on the basis of security. Perceived usefulness was also found to be a significant factor, meaning that commercial users should be aware of the advantages of digital currencies regarding businesses. Moreover, compatibility with existing values and practices affects indirectly the actual use of digital currencies, implying that managers need to perceive that the use of digital currencies should be compatible with existing practices.


Digital currencies Cryptocurrencies Innovation decision process model Technology acceptance model Structural equation modeling 



  1. Abramova S, Böhme R (2016) Perceived benefit and risk as multidimensional determinants of Bitcoin use: a quantitative exploratory study. In: Proceedings of the 37th international conference on information systems, Dublin, pp 233–252Google Scholar
  2. Agarwal R, Karahanna E (1998) On the multi-dimensional nature of compatibility beliefs in technology acceptance. In: Proceedings of the 19th annual international conference on information systems, Helsinki, pp 13–16Google Scholar
  3. Agarwal R, Prasad J (1998) A conceptual and operational definition of personal innovativeness in the domain of information technology. Inf Syst Res 9(2):204–215Google Scholar
  4. Ajzen I, Fishbein M (1980) Understanding attitudes and predicting social behaviour. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrychowicz M, Dziembowski S, Malinowski D, Mazurek Ł (2015) On the malleability of Bitcoin transactions. In: International conference on financial cryptography and data security. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  6. Antonopoulos AM (2014) Mastering Bitcoin: unlocking digital cryptocurrencies. O’Reilly Media, Inc., SebastopolGoogle Scholar
  7. Bank for International Settlements (2018) Central bank digital currencies. Accessed 30 Jan 2019
  8. Bashir M, Strickland B, Bohr J (2016) What motivates people to use Bitcoin? In: International conference on social informatics. Springer, Cham, pp 347–367Google Scholar
  9. Becker J, Breuker D, Heide T et al (2013) Can we afford integrity by proof-of-work? Scenarios inspired by the Bitcoin currency. In: Böhme R (ed) The economics of information security and privacy. Springer, Berlin, pp 135–156Google Scholar
  10. Bitcoin Foundation (2014) Removing impediments to Bitcoin’ s success: a risk management study. Research brief no 1. Accessed 9 July 2017
  11. Bohr J, Bashir M (2014) Who uses Bitcoin? An exploration of the Bitcoin community. In: 2014 12th annual conference on privacy, security and trust (PST). IEEE, pp 94–101Google Scholar
  12. Brito J, Castillo A (2013) Bitcoin: a primer for policymakers. Mercatus Center at George Mason University, ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  13. Carter L, Bélanger F (2005) The utilization of e-government services: citizen trust, innovation and acceptance factors. Inf Syst J 15(1):5–25Google Scholar
  14. Catalini C, Tucker C (2016) Seeding the s-curve? The role of early adopters in diffusion. SSRN. Accessed 12 Apr 2018
  15. Cermak V (2017) Can Bitcoin become a viable alternative to fiat currencies? An empirical analysis of Bitcoin’s volatility based on a GARCH model. SSRN. Accessed 23 Feb 2018
  16. Chau PYK, Hu PJ (2002) Investigating healthcare professionals’ decisions to accept telemedicine technology: an empirical test of competing theories. Inf Manag 39(4):297–311Google Scholar
  17. Chellappa RK, Pavlou PA (2002) Perceived information security, financial liability and consumer trust in electronic commerce transactions. Logist Inf Manag 15(5/6):358–368Google Scholar
  18. Chen L, Gillenson ML, Sherrell DL (2002) Enticing online consumers: an extended technology acceptance perspective. Inf Manag 39(8):705–719Google Scholar
  19. Chismar WG, Wiley-Patton S (2003) Does the extended technology acceptance model apply to physicians. In: Proceedings of the 36th Hawaii international conference on system sciences. Big Island, HI, pp 160–167Google Scholar
  20. Chou DC, Yen DC, Lin B, Hong-Lam CP (1999) Cyberspace security management. Ind Manag Data Syst 99(8):353–361Google Scholar
  21. Chowdhury A, Mendelson BK (2013) Virtual currency and the financial system: the case of Bitcoin. Accessed 12 Apr 2018
  22. Ciaian P, Rajcaniova M, Kancs d’Artis A (2016) The digital agenda of virtual currencies: Can Bitcoin become a global currency? Inf Syst E-bus Manag 14(4):883–919Google Scholar
  23. Coffin B (2003) Breaking the silence on white collar crime. Risk Manag 50(9):8Google Scholar
  24. CoinMarketCap (2019) Top 100 cryptocurrencies by market capitalization. Accessed 14 Feb 2019
  25. Connolly AJ, Kick A (2015) What differentiates early organization adopters of Bitcoin from non-adopters? In: AMCIS 2015 proceedings. AIS electronic library: association for information systems (AIS). Puerto Rico, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  26. Crespo ÁH, De Los Salmones Sánchez MMG, Del Bosque IR (2013) Influence of users’ perceived compatibility and their prior experience on B2C e-commerce acceptance. In: Electronic business and marketing. Springer, Berlin, pp 103–123Google Scholar
  27. Dabrowski M, Janikowski L (2018) Virtual currencies and central banks monetary policy: challenges ahead. Accessed 2 Nov 2018
  28. Davis FD (1985) A technology acceptance model for empirically testing new end-user information systems: theory and results. Doctoral dissertation, MIT Sloan School of ManagementGoogle Scholar
  29. Davis FD (1989) Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Q 13(3):319–340Google Scholar
  30. Davis FD, Bagozzi RP, Warshaw PR (1989) User acceptance of computer technology: a comparison of two theoretical models. Manage Sci 35(8):982–1003Google Scholar
  31. Decker C, Wattenhofer R (2013) Information propagation in the Bitcoin network. In: 13th IEEE international conference on peer-to-peer computing (P2P). IEEE, Trento, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  32. Dion DA (2013) I’ll gladly trade you two bits on Tuesday for a byte today: Bitcoin, regulating fraud in the e-conomy of hacker-cash. U Illinois JL Tech Pol’y 1:165Google Scholar
  33. Dong-Her S, Hsiu-Sen C, Chun-Yuan C, Lin B (2004) Internet security: malicious e-mails detection and protection. Ind Manag Data Syst 104(7):613–623Google Scholar
  34. Dwyer G (2014) The economics of private digital currency. MPRA. Accessed 12 Apr 2018
  35. Dwyer G (2015) The economics of Bitcoin and similar private digital currencies. J Financ Stab 17:81–91Google Scholar
  36. Eastin MS (2002) Diffusion of e-commerce: an analysis of the adoption of four e-commerce activities. Telemat Inform 19(3):251–267Google Scholar
  37. El-Kasheir D, Ashour A, Yacout O (2009) Factors affecting continued usage of internet banking among Egyptian customers. Accessed 23 Mar 2018
  38. Ermakova T, Fabian B, Baumann A et al (2017) Bitcoin: drivers and impediments. SSRN. Accessed 10 Nov 2018
  39. European Banking Authority (2013) Warning to currencies consumers on virtual currencies. Accessed 13 Nov 2018
  40. European Central Bank (2012) Virtual currency schemes. Accessed 1 Mar 2018
  41. Eyal I, Sirer EG (2018) Majority is not enough: Bitcoin mining is vulnerable. Commun ACM 61(7):95–102Google Scholar
  42. Fenech T (1998) Using perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness to predict acceptance of the World Wide Web. Comput Netw ISDN Syst 30(1):629–630Google Scholar
  43. Fishbein M, Ajzen I (1975) Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: an introduction to theory and research. Addison-Wesley, ReadingGoogle Scholar
  44. Flavián C, Guinalíu M (2006) Consumer trust, perceived security and privacy policy. Ind Manag Data Syst 106(5):601–620Google Scholar
  45. Flynn LR, Goldsmith RE (1993) A validation of the Goldsmith and Hofacker innovativeness scale. Educ Psychol Meas 53(4):1105–1116Google Scholar
  46. Folkinshteyn D, Lennon M (2016) Braving Bitcoin: a technology acceptance model (TAM) analysis. SSRN. Accessed 2 Apr 2018
  47. Folkinshteyn D, Lennon M, Reilly T (2015a) A tale of twin tech: Bitcoin and the www. SSRN. Accessed 4 Apr 2018
  48. Folkinshteyn D, Lennon MM, Reilly T (2015b) The Bitcoin mirage: an oasis of financial remittance. SSRN. Accessed 4 Apr 2018
  49. Furnell SM, Karweni T (1999) Security implications of electronic commerce: a survey of consumers and businesses. Internet Res 9:372–382Google Scholar
  50. Gao X, Clark GD, Lindqvist J (2016) Of two minds, multiple addresses, and one ledger: characterizing opinions, knowledge, and perceptions of Bitcoin across users and non-users. In: 2016 CHI conference on human factors in computing systems. ACM, San Jose, pp 1656–1668Google Scholar
  51. Gefen D, Straub DW (1997) Gender differences in use of e-mail: an extension to the technology acceptance model. MIS Q 21(4):389–400Google Scholar
  52. Glaser F, Zimmermann K, Haferkorn M et al (2014) Bitcoin—asset or currency? Revealing users’ hidden intentions. SSRN. Accessed 12 Apr 2018
  53. Gounaris S, Koritos C (2008) Investigating the drivers of internet banking adoption decision: A comparison of three alternative frameworks. Int J Bank Market 26(5):282–304Google Scholar
  54. Groves RM (1989) Survey errors and survey costs. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  55. Gujarati D (2003) Basic econometrics. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  56. Halaburda H, Sarvary M (2016) Beyond Bitcoin: the economics of digital currencies. Palgrave Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Hartono E, Holsapple CW, Kim KY et al (2014) Measuring perceived security in B2C electronic commerce website usage: a respecification and validation. Decis Support Syst 62:11–21Google Scholar
  58. Hoffer JA, Alexander MB (1992) The diffusion of database machines. Database Adv Inf Syst 23(2):13–19Google Scholar
  59. Holden RJ, Karsh BT (2010) The technology acceptance model: its past and its future in health care. J Biomed Inform 43(1):159–172Google Scholar
  60. Hooper D, Coughlan J, Mullen MR (2008) Structural equation modelling: guidelines for determining model fit. Elect J Bus Res Methods 6(1):53–60Google Scholar
  61. Hu L, Bentler PM (1999) Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Struct Equ Model Multidiscip J 6(1):1–55Google Scholar
  62. Hu PJ, Chau PYK, Sheng ORL, Tam KY (1999) Examining the technology acceptance model using physician acceptance of telemedicine technology. J Manag Inf Syst 16(2):91–112Google Scholar
  63. Iacobucci D (2010) Structural equations modeling: fit indices, sample size, and advanced topics. J Consum Psychol 20(1):90–98Google Scholar
  64. Iavorschi M (2013) The Bitcoin project and the free market. CES working papers, vol 5(4), pp 529–534Google Scholar
  65. Jones S, Wilikens M, Morris P, Masera M (2000) Trust requirements in e-business: a conceptual framework. Commun ACM 43(2):81–87Google Scholar
  66. Karahanna E, Straub DW, Chervany NL (1999) Information technology adoption across time: a cross-sectional comparison of pre-adoption and post-adoption beliefs. MIS Q 23(2):183–213Google Scholar
  67. Karlstrøm H (2014) Do libertarians dream of electric coins? The material embeddedness of Bitcoin. Distinktion Scand J Soc Theory 15(1):23–36Google Scholar
  68. Kauffman RJ, Techatassanasoontorn AA (2005) International diffusion of digital mobile technology: a coupled-hazard state-based approach. Inf Technol Manag 6(2–3):253–292Google Scholar
  69. Keil M, Beranek PM, Konsynski BR (1995) Usefulness and ease of use: field study evidence regarding task considerations. Decis Support Syst 13(1):75–91Google Scholar
  70. Klein L (1962) An introduction to econometrics. Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  71. Kline RB (2011) Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford Publications, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  72. Kolodinsky JM, Hogarth JM, Hilgert MA (2004) The adoption of electronic banking technologies by US consumers. Int J Bank Mark 22(4):238–259Google Scholar
  73. Kolsaker A, Payne C (2002) Engendering trust in e-commerce: a study of gender-based concerns. Mark Intell Plan 20(4):206–214Google Scholar
  74. Kousaridas A, Parissis G, Apostolopoulos T (2008) An open financial services architecture based on the use of intelligent mobile devices. Electron Commer Res Appl 7(2):232–246Google Scholar
  75. Kroll JA, Davey IC, Felten EW (2013) The economics of Bitcoin mining, or Bitcoin in the presence of adversaries. In: Workshop on the economics of information security (WEIS 2013), Washington, pp 1–21Google Scholar
  76. Krombholz K, Judmayer A, Gusenbauer M, Weippl E (2016) The other side of the coin: user experiences with Bitcoin security and privacy. In: International conference on financial cryptography and data security. Springer, Berlin, pp 555–580Google Scholar
  77. Kumpajaya A, Dhewanto W (2015) The acceptance of Bitcoin in Indonesia: extending TAM with IDT. Accessed 5 Nov 2017
  78. Lee YH, Hsieh YC, Hsu CN (2011) Adding innovation diffusion theory to the technology acceptance model: supporting employees’ intentions to use e-learning systems. Educ Technol Soc 14(4):124–137Google Scholar
  79. Lin F-T, Wu H-Y, Tran TNN (2015) Internet banking adoption in a developing country: an empirical study in Vietnam. Inf Syst E-bus Manag 13(2):267–287Google Scholar
  80. Linck K, Pousttchi K, Wiedemann DG (2006) Security issues in mobile payment from the customer viewpoint. In: Proceedings of the 14th European conference on information systems (ECIS 2006), Goteborg, pp 1–11Google Scholar
  81. Lu J, Yu C, Liu C, Yao JE (2003) Technology acceptance model for wireless Internet. Internet Res 13(3):206–222Google Scholar
  82. Luther WJ (2015) Regulating Bitcoin: On what grounds? SSRN. Accessed 12 Apr 2018
  83. Maddala G (2001) Introduction to econometrics. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  84. Mallqui DCA, Fernandes RAS (2019) Predicting the direction, maximum, minimum and closing prices of daily Bitcoin exchange rate using machine learning techniques. Appl Soft Comput J 75:596–606. Google Scholar
  85. Mancini-Griffoli T, Soledad Martinez Peria M, Agur I et al (2018) Casting light on central bank digital currency. Accessed 30 Jan 2019
  86. Maudlin J (2014) The 5 phases of Bitcoin adoption. Accessed 5 Dec 2016
  87. McQuitty S, Wolf M (2013) Structural equation modeling: a practical introduction. J Afr Bus 14(1):58–69Google Scholar
  88. Meiklejohn S, Pomarole M, Jordan G et al (2013) A fistful of Bitcoins: characterizing payments among men with no names. In: Proceedings of the 2013 conference on Internet measurement conference. ACM, 2013, pp 127–140Google Scholar
  89. Midgley DF, Dowling G (1978) Innovativeness: the concept and its measurement. J Consum Res 4(4):229–242Google Scholar
  90. Moore T (2013) The promise and perils of digital currencies. Int J Crit Infrastruct Prot 6(3–4):147–149Google Scholar
  91. Moore GC, Benbasat I (1991) Development of an instrument to measure the perceptions of adopting an information technology innovation. Inf Syst Res 2(3):192–222Google Scholar
  92. Moore GC, Benbasat I (1996) Integrating diffusion of innovations and theory of reasoned action models to predict utilization of information technology by end-users. In: Kautz K, Pries-Heje J (eds) Diffusion and adoption of information technology, IFIP—the international federation for information processing. Springer, Boston, pp 132–146Google Scholar
  93. Moore T, Christin N (2013) Beware the middleman: empirical analysis of Bitcoin-exchange risk. In: International conference on financial cryptography and data security. Springer, Berlin, pp 25–33Google Scholar
  94. Nakamoto S (2008) Bitcoin: a peer-to-peer electronic cash system. Accessed 6 Feb 2014
  95. Oh S, Ahn J, Kim B (2003) Adoption of broadband Internet in Korea: the role of experience in building attitudes. J Inf Technol 18(4):267–280Google Scholar
  96. Oshodin O, Molla A, Ong C (2016) An information systems perspective on digital currencies: a systematic literature review. In: Australasian conference on information systems (ACIS 2016), Wollongon, pp 1–11Google Scholar
  97. Pavlou PA (2001) Integrating trust in electronic commerce with the technology acceptance model: model development and validation. In: Proceedings of the 7th Americas conference on information systems, pp 816–822Google Scholar
  98. Pavlou P (2003) Consumer acceptance of electronic commerce: integrating trust and risk with the technology acceptance model. Int J Electron Commer 7(3):101–134Google Scholar
  99. Pease W, Rowe M (2005) Diffusion of innovation-the adoption of electronic commerce by small and medium enterprises (SMES)—a comparative analysis. Australas J Inf Syst 13(1):287–294Google Scholar
  100. Pirjan A, Petrosanu D-M, Huth M, Negoita M (2015) Research issues regarding the Bitcoin and alternative coins digital currencies. Accessed 24 Mar 2018
  101. Polasik M, Piotrowska AI, Wisniewski TP et al (2015) Price fluctuations and the use of Bitcoin: an empirical inquiry. Int J Electron Commer 20(1):9–49Google Scholar
  102. Rangaswamy A, Gupta S (2000) Innovation adoption and diffusion in the digital environment: some research opportunities. In: Mahajan V, Muller E, Wind Y (eds) New product diffusion models. Kluwer Academic, Boston, pp 75–96Google Scholar
  103. Rapoza K (2017) Five impediments to further adoption of Bitcoin. Accessed 6 Jun 2018
  104. Redžović M, Novaković J (2016) The impact of virtual money on e-commerce. In: International scientific conference on ICT and e-business related research, Sinteza, pp 474–478Google Scholar
  105. Roca JC, Chiu C-M, Martinez FJ (2006) Understanding e-learning continuance intention: an extension of the technology acceptance model. Int J Hum Comput Stud 64(8):683–696Google Scholar
  106. Rogers EM (1962) Diffusion of innovation, 1st edn. The Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  107. Rogers EM (1995) Diffusion of innovation, 4th edn. The Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  108. Ron D, Shamir A (2013) Quantitative analysis of anonymity in the Bitcoin transaction graph. In: International conference on financial cryptography and data security. Springer, Berlin, pp 6–24Google Scholar
  109. Rosseel Y (2012) lavaan: an R package for structural equation modeling. J Stat Softw 48(2):1–36Google Scholar
  110. Saito T (2015) Bitcoin: a search-theoretic approach. Int J Innov Digit Econ 6(2):52–71Google Scholar
  111. Salisbury WD, Pearson RA, Pearson AW, Miller DW (2001) Perceived security and World Wide Web purchase intention. Ind Manag Data Syst 101(4):165–177Google Scholar
  112. Schwarz A, Junglas IA, Krotov V, Chin WW (2004) Exploring the role of experience and compatibility in using mobile technologies. Inf Syst E-bus Manag 2(4):337–356Google Scholar
  113. Seligman L (2000) Adoption as sense making: toward an adopter-centered process model of IT adoption. In: Proceedings of the 21st international conference on information systems, Brisbane, pp 361–370Google Scholar
  114. Shadab HB (2014) Regulating Bitcoin and block chain derivatives. SSRN. Accessed 6 Apr 2018
  115. Sigala M, Airey D, Jones P, Lockwood A (2000) The diffusion and application of multimedia technologies in the tourism and hospitality industries. In: Fesenmaier DR, Klein S, Buhalis D (eds) Information and communication technologies in tourism 2000. Springer, Vienna, pp 396–407Google Scholar
  116. Silinskyte J (2014) Understanding Bitcoin adoption: unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) application. Master thesis, Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science (LIACS)Google Scholar
  117. Smyth L (2013) Overview of Bitcoin community. Accessed 18 Sept 2014
  118. Sompolinsky Y, Zohar A (2013) Accelerating Bitcoin’s transaction processing. Fast money grows on trees, not chains. Technical report, Hebrew University of JerusalemGoogle Scholar
  119. Stokes R (2012) Virtual money laundering: the case of Bitcoin and the Linden dollar. Inf Commun Technol Law 21(3):221–236Google Scholar
  120. Stroborn K, Heitmann A, Leibold K, Frank G (2004) Internet payments in Germany: a classificatory framework and empirical evidence. J Bus Res 57(12):1431–1437Google Scholar
  121. Swartz ND (2014) Bursting the Bitcoin bubble: the case to regulate digital currency as a security or commodity. Tul J Tech Intell Prop 17:319–329Google Scholar
  122. Tasca P (2016) The dual nature of Bitcoin as payment network and money. SSRN. Accessed 13 Jan 2017
  123. Tatnall A, Burgess S (2004) Using actor-network theory to identify factors affecting the adoption of e-commerce in SMEs. In: Singh M, Waddell D (eds) E-business innovation and change management. Idea Group Publishing, Hershey, pp 152–169Google Scholar
  124. Taylor S, Todd P (1995a) Assessing IT usage: the role of prior experience. MIS Q 19(4):561–570Google Scholar
  125. Taylor S, Todd PA (1995b) Understanding information technology usage: a test of competing models. Inf Syst Res 6(2):144–176Google Scholar
  126. Teigland R, Yetis Z, Larsson T (2013) Breaking out of the bank in Europe exploring collective emergent institutional entrepreneurship through Bitcoin. SSRN. Accessed 3 Apr 2016
  127. Tornatzky LG, Klein KJ (1982) Innovation characteristics and innovation adoption–implementation: a meta-analysis of findings. IEEE Trans Eng Manag EM 29(1):28–45Google Scholar
  128. Tsiakis T, Sthephanides G (2005) The concept of security and trust in electronic payments. Comput Secur 24(1):10–15Google Scholar
  129. Van Alstyne M (2014) Why Bitcoin has value. Commun ACM 57(5):30–32Google Scholar
  130. van Wijk D (2013) What can be expected from the Bitcoin? Working paper no. 345986, Erasmus Rotterdam UniversiteitGoogle Scholar
  131. Vasek M, Thornton M, Moore T (2014) Empirical analysis of denial-of-service attacks in the Bitcoin ecosystem. In: International conference on financial cryptography and data security. Spinger, Berlin, pp 57–71Google Scholar
  132. Venkatesh V, Bala H (2008) Technology acceptance model 3 and a research agenda on interventions. Decis Sci 39(2):273–315Google Scholar
  133. Venkatesh V, Davis FD (2000) A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: four longitudinal field studies. Manage Sci 46(2):186–204Google Scholar
  134. Venkatesh V, Ramesh V (2006) Web and wireless site usability: understanding differences and modeling use. MIS Q 30(1):181–206Google Scholar
  135. Vijayasarathy LR (2004) Predicting consumer intentions to use on-line shopping: the case for an augmented technology acceptance model. Inf Manag 41(6):747–762Google Scholar
  136. Wang JC (2014) A simple macroenomic model of Bitcoin. SSRN. Accessed 12 Apr 2018
  137. Wang Y, Meister D, Wang Y (2011) Reexamining relative advantage and perceived usefulness. Int J Inf Commun Technol Educ 7(1):46–59Google Scholar
  138. Wu JH, Wang SC (2005) What drives mobile commerce? Inf Manag 42(5):719–729Google Scholar
  139. Zarmpou T, Saprikis V, Markos A, Vlachopoulou M (2012) Modeling users’ acceptance of mobile services. Electron Commer Res 12(2):225–248Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ioanna Roussou
    • 1
  • Emmanouil Stiakakis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Angelo Sifaleras
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MacedoniaThessaloníkiGreece

Personalised recommendations