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Evaluation of the influence of social, demographic, environmental, work-related factors and/or lifestyle habits on Raynaud’s phenomenon: a case–control study

  • M. Prete
  • E. Favoino
  • R. Giacomelli
  • A. Afeltra
  • F. P. Cantatore
  • C. Bruno
  • A. Corrado
  • L. Emmi
  • G. Emmi
  • R. D. Grembiale
  • L. Navarini
  • A. Marcoccia
  • V. Liakouli
  • A. Riccardi
  • G. Valentini
  • F. PerosaEmail author
  • GIRRCS (Gruppo Italiano di Ricerca in Reumatologia Clinica e Sperimentale)
Original Article
  • 27 Downloads

Abstract

Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP) is a clinical disorder characterized by recurrent, reversible episodes of digital vasospasm. RP can be classified as primary (pRP) or secondary, depending on whether it occurs as a benign condition (not disease-associated) or is associated with other diseases, mainly of the connective tissues. In both cases, it can be triggered by environmental factors, as indicated by the increased incidence of pRP episodes following exposure to cold, vibration injury or chemicals. The purpose of this prospective case–control study was to assess, in an Italian cohort of 132 pRP patients, the association of the phenomenon with demographic, lifestyle habits, environmental and work-related factors. Compared to healthy controls, pRP was found to be inversely associated with the use of contact lenses (OR = 0.4; p = 0.004) and of chlorous-based disinfectants (OR = 0.3; p < 0.001) and directly associated with the presence of prosthesis implants (OR = 5.3; p = 0.001) and the use of hydrogen peroxide-based compounds (OR = 2.6; p = 0.002), suggesting that the latter should be avoided in RP affected patients. Multivariate and multivariable analysis confirmed the associations. Further investigations are needed to understand the mechanism(s) underlying these findings.

Keywords

Raynaud’s phenomenon Environmental factors Lifestyle habits Hydrogen peroxide-based compounds Contact lenses Prosthesis implants 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Mrs. Maria Daniele and Mr. Vito Iacovizzi for their excellent secretarial assistance. Mary V.C. Pragnell provided editorial advice and scientific editing.

Funding

This work was supported by a Grant from University of Bari Medical School. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standard

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were conducted in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee (Ethical Committee of the University of Bari Medical School, no. 1071/C.E.) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individuals included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Prete
    • 1
  • E. Favoino
    • 1
  • R. Giacomelli
    • 2
  • A. Afeltra
    • 3
  • F. P. Cantatore
    • 4
  • C. Bruno
    • 5
  • A. Corrado
    • 4
  • L. Emmi
    • 6
  • G. Emmi
    • 7
  • R. D. Grembiale
    • 5
  • L. Navarini
    • 3
  • A. Marcoccia
    • 8
  • V. Liakouli
    • 2
  • A. Riccardi
    • 9
  • G. Valentini
    • 9
  • F. Perosa
    • 1
    Email author
  • GIRRCS (Gruppo Italiano di Ricerca in Reumatologia Clinica e Sperimentale)
  1. 1.Systemic Rheumatic and Autoimmune Diseases Unit, Department of Biomedical Science and Human Oncology (DIMO)University of Bari Medical SchoolBariItaly
  2. 2.Rheumatology Section, Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical SciencesUniversity of L’AquilaL’AquilaItaly
  3. 3.Clinical Medicine and Rheumatology Department, Campus Bio-MedicoUniversity of RomaRomaItaly
  4. 4.Rheumatology Section, Department of Medical and Surgical SciencesUniversity of Foggia Medical SchoolFoggiaItaly
  5. 5.Rheumatology Research Unit, Department of Health SciencesUniversity of CatanzaroCatanzaroItaly
  6. 6.Department of Neurosciences, Psychology, Pharmacology and Child Health (NEUROFARBA)University of FirenzeFirenzeItaly
  7. 7.Department of Experimental and Clinical MedicineUniversity of FirenzeFirenzeItaly
  8. 8.UOSD of Ischemic Microangiopathy and Sclerodermic UlcersSandro Pertini HospitalRomaItaly
  9. 9.Rheumatology Unit, Department of Precision MedicineUniversity of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”NapoliItaly

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