GIRRCS (Gruppo Italiano di Ricerca in Reumatologia Clinica e Sperimentale)
Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP) is a clinical disorder characterized by recurrent, reversible episodes of digital vasospasm. RP can be classified as primary (pRP) or secondary, depending on whether it occurs as a benign condition (not disease-associated) or is associated with other diseases, mainly of the connective tissues.
In both cases, it can be triggered by environmental factors, as indicated by the increased incidence of pRP episodes following exposure to cold, vibration injury or chemicals. The purpose of this prospective case–control study was to assess, in an Italian cohort of 132 pRP patients, the association of the phenomenon with demographic, lifestyle habits, environmental and work-related factors. Compared to healthy controls, pRP was found to be inversely associated with the use of contact lenses (OR = 0.4; p = 0.004) and of chlorous-based disinfectants (OR = 0.3; p < 0.001) and directly associated with the presence of prosthesis implants (OR = 5.3; p = 0.001) and the use of hydrogen peroxide-based compounds (OR = 2.6; p = 0.002), suggesting that the latter should be avoided in RP affected patients. Multivariate and multivariable analysis confirmed the associations. Further investigations are needed to understand the mechanism(s) underlying these findings.
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The authors thank Mrs. Maria Daniele and Mr. Vito Iacovizzi for their excellent secretarial assistance. Mary V.C. Pragnell provided editorial advice and scientific editing.
This work was supported by a Grant from University of Bari Medical School. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standard
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were conducted in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee (Ethical Committee of the University of Bari Medical School, no. 1071/C.E.) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individuals included in the study.
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