Advertisement

Investigation of wave propagation through head layers with focus on understanding blast wave transmission

  • Sunil Sutar
  • S. GanpuleEmail author
Original Paper
  • 73 Downloads

Abstract

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a critical health concern. This issue is being addressed in terms of identifying a cause–effect relationship between the mechanical insult in the form of a blast and resulting injury to the brain. Understanding wave propagation through the head is an important aspect in this regard. The objective of this work was to study the blast wave propagation through the layered architecture of the head with an emphasis on understanding the wave transmission mechanism. Toward this end, one-dimensional (1D) finite element head model is built for a simplified surrogate, human, and rat. Motivated from experimental investigations, four different head layer configurations have been considered. These configurations are: (A) Skull–Brain, (B) Skin–Skull–Brain, (C) Skin–Skull–Dura–Arachnoid–CSF-Pia-Brain, (D) Skin–Skull–Dura–Arachnoid–AT-Pia-Brain. The validated head model is subjected to flattop and Friedlander loading implied in the blast, and the resulting response is evaluated in terms of brain pressures. Our results suggest that wave propagation through head parenchyma plays an important role in blast wave transmission. The thickness, material properties of head layers, and rise time of an input pulse govern the temporal evolution of pressure in the brain. The key findings of this work are: (a) Skin and meninges amplify the applied input pressure, whereas air sinus has an attenuation effect. (b) Model is able to describe experimentally recorded peak pressures and rise times in the brain, including variations within the aforementioned experimental head models of TBI. This reinforces that the wave transmission is an important loading pathway to the brain. (c) Equivalent layer theory for modeling meningeal layers as a single layer has been proposed, and it gives reasonable agreement with each meningeal layer modeled explicitly. This modeling approach has a great utility in 3D head models. The potential applications of 1D head model in evaluation of new helmet materials, brain sensor calibration, and brain pressure estimation for a given explosive strength have also been demonstrated. Overall, these results provide important insights into the understanding of mechanics of blast wave transmission in the head.

Keywords

Blast TBI Wave propagation Transmission mechanism Head model Helmet 

Abbreviations

bTBI

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury

BOP

Blast overpressure

ICP

Intracranial pressure

PMHS

Postmortem human subject

SAS

Subarachnoid space

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

AT

Arachnoid trabeculae

DM

Dura matter

AM

Arachnoid matter

PM

Pia matter

Notes

Acknowledgments

SG acknowledges financial support from the Department of Science and Technology (DST) under the grant ECR-2017-000417. SS acknowledges fellowship from the Ministry of Human Resource Development. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive suggestions.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10237_2019_1256_MOESM1_ESM.docx (175 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 174 kb)

References

  1. Akula PK, Hua Y, Gu L (2013) Role of frontal sinus on primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury. J Med Devices 7:030925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bir C (2011) Measuring blast-related intracranial pressure within the human head. Final report. U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Award Number W81XWH-09-1-0498Google Scholar
  3. Blanton PL, Biggs NL (1969) Eighteen hundred years of controversy: the paranasal sinuses. Am J Anat 124:135–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bolander R (2011) A multi-species analysis of biomechanical responses of the head to a shock wave. Ph.D. dissertation, Wayne State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  5. Bolander R, Mathie B, Bir C, Ritzel D, Vandevord P (2011) Skull flexure as a contributing factor in the mechanism of injury in the rat when exposed to a shock wave. Ann Biomed Eng 39:2550–2559.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10439-011-0343-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cernak I, Wang ZG, Jiang JX, Bian XW, Savic J (2001) Ultrastructural and functional characteristics of blast injury-induced neurotrauma. J Trauma-Injury Infect Crit Care 50:695–706.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00005373-200104000-00017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chafi MS, Karami G, Ziejewski M (2010) Biomechanical assessment of brain dynamic responses due to blast pressure waves. Ann Biomed Eng 38:490–504.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10439-009-9813-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chavko M, Koller WA, Prusaczyk WK, McCarron RM (2007) Measurement of blast wave by a miniature fiber optic pressure transducer in the rat brain. J Neurosci Methods 159:277–281.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2006.07.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chavko M, Watanabe T, Adeeb S, Lankasky J, Ahlers ST, McCarron RM (2011) Relationship between orientation to a blast and pressure wave propagation inside the rat brain. J Neurosci Methods 195:61–66.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2010.11.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dal Cengio LA, Keane NJ, Bir CA, Ryan AG, Xu L, Vandevord PJ (2012) Head orientation affects the intracranial pressure response resulting from shock wave loading in the rat. J Biomech 45:2595–2602.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2012.08.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fievisohn E, Bailey Z, Guettler A, Vande Vord P (2018) Primary blast brain injury mechanisms: current knowledge, limitations, and future directions. J Biomech Eng 140:020806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ganpule S (2013) Mechanics of blast loading on post-mortem human and surrogate heads in the study of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) using experimental and computational approaches. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Lincoln, NebraskaGoogle Scholar
  13. Ganpule S, Alai A, Plougonven E, Chandra N (2013) Mechanics of blast loading on the head models in the study of traumatic brain injury using experimental and computational approaches. Biomech Model Mechanobiol 12:511–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ganpule S, Salzar R, Perry B, Chandra N (2016) Role of helmets in blast mitigation: insights from experiments on PMHS surrogate international journal of experimental and computational. Biomechanics 4:13–31Google Scholar
  15. Ganpule S, Daphalapurkar NP, Ramesh KT, Knutsen AK, Pham DL, Bayly PV, Prince JL (2017) A three-dimensional computational human head model that captures live human brain dynamics. J Neurotrauma 34:2154–2166.  https://doi.org/10.1089/neu.2016.4744 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Garimella HT, Kraft RH, Przekwas AJ (2018) Do blast induced skull flexures result in axonal deformation? PLoS One 13:e0190881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Goeller J, Wardlaw A, Treichler D, O’Bruba J, Weiss G (2012) Investigation of cavitation as a possible damage mechanism in blast-induced traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 29:1970–1981.  https://doi.org/10.1089/neu.2011.2224 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gullotti DM et al (2014) Significant head accelerations can influence immediate neurological impairments in a murine model of blast-induced traumatic brain injury. J Biomech Eng 136:091004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Haniff S, Taylor PA (2017) silico investigation of blast-induced intracranial fluid cavitation as it potentially leads to traumatic brain injury. Shock Waves 27:929–945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hua Y, Akula PK, Gu L, Berg J, Nelson CA (2014) Experimental and numerical investigation of the mechanism of blast wave transmission through a surrogate head. J Comput Nonlinear Dyn 9:031010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kalra A et al (2017) Development and validation of a numerical model of the swine head subjected to open-field blasts. Shock Waves 27:947–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kingery CN, Bulmash G (1984) Air blast parameters from TNT spherical air burst and hemispherical surface burst. Ballistic Research Laboratories. Report No: 02555Google Scholar
  23. Kinney GF, Graham KJ (1985) Explosive shocks in air. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kleiven S, von Holst H (2002) Consequences of head size following trauma to the human head. J Biomech 35:153–160.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9290(01)00202-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Laury A, McMains K (2019) Frontal barotrauma and aerosinusitis a systematic approach. In: frontal sinus surgery, pp 411–416Google Scholar
  26. Leonardi AD, Bir CA, Ritzel DV, VandeVord PJ (2011) Intracranial pressure increases during exposure to a shock wave. J Neurotrauma 28:85–94.  https://doi.org/10.1089/neu.2010.1324 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lin Y-H, Ma C-C (2011) Transient analysis of elastic wave propagation in multilayered structures. Comput Mater Continua 24:15Google Scholar
  28. Mao H et al (2013) Development of a finite element human head model partially validated with thirty five experimental cases. J Biomech Eng 135:111002.  https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4025101 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Meaney DF, Morrison B, Bass CD (2014) The mechanics of traumatic brain injury: a review of what we know and what we need to know for reducing its societal burden. J Biomech Eng 136:021008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Meyers MA (1994) Dynamic behavior of materials. Wiley, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Moss WC, King MJ, Blackman EG (2009) Skull flexure from blast waves: a mechanism for brain injury with implications for helmet design. Phys Rev Lett 103:108702.  https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.108702 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nyein MK (2013) Computational modeling of primary blast effects on the human brain. Ph.D. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  33. Nyein MK, Jason AM, Yu L, Pita CM, Joannopoulos JD, Moore DF, Radovitzky RA (2010) Silico investigation of intracranial blast mitigation with relevance to military traumatic brain injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1014786107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. O’Higgins P, Bastir M, Kupczik K (2006) Shaping the human face. In: International congress series, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 55–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ramesh KT (2008) High rates and impact experiments. In: Springer handbook of experimental solid mechanics, pp 929–960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rashid B, Destrade M, Gilchrist MD (2014) Mechanical characterization of brain tissue in tension at dynamic strain rates. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 33:43–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Saboori P (2011) Mechanotransduction of head impacts to the brain leading to TBI: histology and architecture of subarachnoid space. Ph.D. Dissertation, City University of New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Säljö A, Mayorga M, Bolouri H, Svensson B, Hamberger A (2011) Mechanisms and pathophysiology of the low-level blast brain injury in animal models. NeuroImage 54:S83–S88.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.05.050 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Salzar RS, Treichler D, Wardlaw A, Weiss G, Goeller J (2017) Experimental investigation of cavitation as a possible damage mechanism in blast-induced traumatic brain injury in post-mortem human subject heads. J Neurotrauma 34:1589–1602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Scott GG, Margulies SS, Coats B (2016) Utilizing multiple scale models to improve predictions of extra-axial hemorrhage in the immature piglet. Biomech Model Mechanobiol 15:1101–1119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sedberry K, Harrand V, Przekwas A, Skotak M, Townsend M, Chandra N (2018) Biofidelic rat testing device (RTD) to measure blast exposure and loadings for TBI. Final report. U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Award Number W81XWH-18-C-0047Google Scholar
  42. Selvan V, Ganpule S, Kleinschmit N, Chandra N (2013) Blast wave loading pathways in heterogeneous material systems-experimental and numerical approaches. J Biomech Eng 135:061002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Simard JM, Pampori A, Keledjian K, Tosun C, Schwartzbauer G, Ivanova S, Gerzanich V (2014) Exposure of the thorax to a sublethal blast wave causes a hydrodynamic pulse that leads to perivenular inflammation in the brain. J Neurotrauma 31:1292–1304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Singletary EM, Reilly JF (1990) Acute frontal sinus barotrauma. Am J Emerg Med 8:329–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Skotak M, Wang F, Alai A, Holmberg A, Harris S, Switzer RC, Chandra N (2013) Rat injury model under controlled field-relevant primary blast conditions: acute response to a wide range of peak overpressures. J Neurotrauma 30:1147–1160.  https://doi.org/10.1089/neu.2012.2652 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Slutzky MW, Jordan LR, Krieg T, Chen M, Mogul DJ, Miller LE (2010) Optimal spacing of surface electrode arrays for brain–machine interface applications. J Neural Eng 7:026004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sundaramurthy A, Alai A, Ganpule S, Holmberg A, Plougonven E, Chandra N (2012) Blast-induced biomechanical loading of the rat: an experimental and anatomically accurate computational blast injury model. J Neurotrauma 29:2352–2364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tanielian T, Jaycox LH (2008) Invisible wounds of war. RAND Corporation, Santa MonicaGoogle Scholar
  49. Taylor PA, Ford CC (2009) Simulation of blast-induced early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury. J Biomech Eng 131:061007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Treuting PM, Dintzis SM, Montine KS (2017) Comparative anatomy and histology: a mouse, rat, and human atlas, 2nd edn. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  51. Zhu F et al (2010) Development of an FE model of the rat head subjected to air shock loading. Stapp Car Crash J 54:211–225Google Scholar
  52. Zhu F, Skelton P, Chou CC, Mao H, Yang KH, King AI (2013) Biomechanical responses of a pig head under blast loading: a computational simulation. Int J Numer Methods Biomed Eng 29:392–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zhuang S, Ravichandran G, Grady DE (2003) An experimental investigation of shock wave propagation in periodically layered composites. J Mech Phys Solids 51:245–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Industrial EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia

Personalised recommendations