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Submesoscale eddies in Peter the Great Bay of the Japan/East Sea in winter

  • Pavel FaymanEmail author
  • Alexander Ostrovskii
  • Vyacheslav Lobanov
  • Jae-Hun Park
  • Young-Gyu Park
  • Aleksandr Sergeev
Article

Abstract

Cold-core (T < 0 °C) domes of dense water σθ > 27.24 kg/m3 were observed in the near-bottom layer at the shelf break in Peter the Great Bay (PGB) of the Japan/East Sea in March 2010. The anomalously cold water was 0.4 ml/l richer in oxygen than was the surrounding water, and it contained more suspended particles. The observations were carried out by using a moored automatic mobile Aqualog profiler. Profiling occurred as frequent as every hour, allowing us to obtain data with high temporal resolution. The Aqualog profiler delivered vertical profiles of the ocean current velocity, acoustic backscatter at 2 MHz, temperature, and salinity between the depths of 20 and 105 m. Other oceanographic instruments were mounted at fixed depths on the mooring line to measure current velocity, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll-a fluorescence, and turbidity. Complementary data included ship-borne CTD casts and satellite-borne imagery and scatterometry as well as coastal weather station records. The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was employed to study the origin and evolution of the cold water. The model simulated the ocean dynamics at a 600-m horizontal resolution in PGB from 2009 to 2010. The model was forced by the surface momentum, heat and fresh water fluxes of the NCEP-DOE Reanalysis 2. The lateral boundary condition of the model was obtained from nesting into a Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment model data set. According to the ROMS simulation, the circulation in Ussuri Bay in the northeastern bay of PGB was anticyclonic in February–March 2010. The submesoscale cyclonic vortices generated around the anticyclonic gyre. The submesoscale cyclones tended to move southward out of the bay, and they transported the anomalously cold water towards the outer shelf. As a result, the cold water anomalies were often observed to persist for as long as 2 days near 42.5°N, 132°E. Lagrangian analysis confirmed that this cold water observed by the Aqualog profiler originated in Ussuri Bay. The model simulation showed that the submesoscale cyclonic eddies played a specific role in supplying the densest water from the northern part of PGB to the outer shelf, where the dense water was then entrained by the mesoscale eddies in the Primorye Current zone and could cascade down the continental slope into the deep northern basin of the sea. This transport of the densest water by the submesoscale eddies was estimated to be 5–10·10−3 Sv in February–March 2010.

Keywords

Moored automatic mobile profiler Regional ocean modeling system Submesoscale eddy Water particle pathways Dense water production rate Peter the Great Bay Japan/East Sea 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The data were collected during field experiment with the moored profiler Aqualog. The experiments were supported by Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises (FASIE), Moscow. We thank Igor Gorin (POI FEB RAS), Sergey Nizov, Valdimir Solovyev, and Dmitry Shvoev (all of SIO RAS) who handled the equipment during the cruises of R/V Professor Gagarinskiy. We are grateful to Dmitry Solovyev (MHI RAS) who processed the satellite imagery data. Support of the crew of R/V Professor Gagarinsky is appreciated. The data analysis for Section 2 was carried out under Agreement between Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST) and Shirshov Institute of Oceanology Russian Academy of Sciences of December 15, 2015 on the scientific research project entitled Research on the Variability of the Circulation in the Northern East Sea supported by “Development of satellite based ocean carbon flux model for seas around Korea” project funded by Ministry of Ocean and Fisheries, Republic of Korea. The literature review for Section 1 and the data analysis for Section 3 were both supported by using funding of the Russian state basic research task no. 0149-2018-0010. The model simulation and the model data analysis for Sections 4 and 5 was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research grants 16-05-00899 and 16-55-50071jf-a and FEB RAS Priority Program “Far East” grant 18-1-010. The ROMS was run at the supercomputer of Shared Resource Center “Far Eastern Computing Resource” IACP FEB RAS (https://cc.dvo.ru).

Supplementary material

10236_2019_1252_MOESM1_ESM.doc (36 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 36 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.V.I. Il’ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far Eastern BranchRussian Academy of SciencesVladivostokRussia
  2. 2.Far Eastern Federal UniversityVladivostokRussia
  3. 3.Shirshov Institute of OceanologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  4. 4.Department of Ocean SciencesInha UniversityIncheonSouth Korea
  5. 5.Korea Institute of Ocean Science and TechnologyBusan Metropolitan CitySouth Korea

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