Ocean Dynamics

, Volume 69, Issue 4, pp 443–462 | Cite as

Submesoscale eddies in Peter the Great Bay of the Japan/East Sea in winter

  • Pavel FaymanEmail author
  • Alexander Ostrovskii
  • Vyacheslav Lobanov
  • Jae-Hun Park
  • Young-Gyu Park
  • Aleksandr Sergeev


Cold-core (T < 0 °C) domes of dense water σθ > 27.24 kg/m3 were observed in the near-bottom layer at the shelf break in Peter the Great Bay (PGB) of the Japan/East Sea in March 2010. The anomalously cold water was 0.4 ml/l richer in oxygen than was the surrounding water, and it contained more suspended particles. The observations were carried out by using a moored automatic mobile Aqualog profiler. Profiling occurred as frequent as every hour, allowing us to obtain data with high temporal resolution. The Aqualog profiler delivered vertical profiles of the ocean current velocity, acoustic backscatter at 2 MHz, temperature, and salinity between the depths of 20 and 105 m. Other oceanographic instruments were mounted at fixed depths on the mooring line to measure current velocity, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll-a fluorescence, and turbidity. Complementary data included ship-borne CTD casts and satellite-borne imagery and scatterometry as well as coastal weather station records. The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was employed to study the origin and evolution of the cold water. The model simulated the ocean dynamics at a 600-m horizontal resolution in PGB from 2009 to 2010. The model was forced by the surface momentum, heat and fresh water fluxes of the NCEP-DOE Reanalysis 2. The lateral boundary condition of the model was obtained from nesting into a Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment model data set. According to the ROMS simulation, the circulation in Ussuri Bay in the northeastern bay of PGB was anticyclonic in February–March 2010. The submesoscale cyclonic vortices generated around the anticyclonic gyre. The submesoscale cyclones tended to move southward out of the bay, and they transported the anomalously cold water towards the outer shelf. As a result, the cold water anomalies were often observed to persist for as long as 2 days near 42.5°N, 132°E. Lagrangian analysis confirmed that this cold water observed by the Aqualog profiler originated in Ussuri Bay. The model simulation showed that the submesoscale cyclonic eddies played a specific role in supplying the densest water from the northern part of PGB to the outer shelf, where the dense water was then entrained by the mesoscale eddies in the Primorye Current zone and could cascade down the continental slope into the deep northern basin of the sea. This transport of the densest water by the submesoscale eddies was estimated to be 5–10·10−3 Sv in February–March 2010.


Moored automatic mobile profiler Regional ocean modeling system Submesoscale eddy Water particle pathways Dense water production rate Peter the Great Bay Japan/East Sea 



The data were collected during field experiment with the moored profiler Aqualog. The experiments were supported by Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises (FASIE), Moscow. We thank Igor Gorin (POI FEB RAS), Sergey Nizov, Valdimir Solovyev, and Dmitry Shvoev (all of SIO RAS) who handled the equipment during the cruises of R/V Professor Gagarinskiy. We are grateful to Dmitry Solovyev (MHI RAS) who processed the satellite imagery data. Support of the crew of R/V Professor Gagarinsky is appreciated. The data analysis for Section 2 was carried out under Agreement between Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST) and Shirshov Institute of Oceanology Russian Academy of Sciences of December 15, 2015 on the scientific research project entitled Research on the Variability of the Circulation in the Northern East Sea supported by “Development of satellite based ocean carbon flux model for seas around Korea” project funded by Ministry of Ocean and Fisheries, Republic of Korea. The literature review for Section 1 and the data analysis for Section 3 were both supported by using funding of the Russian state basic research task no. 0149-2018-0010. The model simulation and the model data analysis for Sections 4 and 5 was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research grants 16-05-00899 and 16-55-50071jf-a and FEB RAS Priority Program “Far East” grant 18-1-010. The ROMS was run at the supercomputer of Shared Resource Center “Far Eastern Computing Resource” IACP FEB RAS (

Supplementary material

10236_2019_1252_MOESM1_ESM.doc (36 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 36 kb)


  1. Bentamy A, Croize-Fillon DC (2011) Gridded surface wind fields from Metop/ASCAT measure-ments. Int J Remote Sens 33:1729–1754. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Budyansky MV, Ponomarev V I, Fyman PA, Uleysky M Yu, Prants S V (2011) Lagrangian approach to chaotic transport and mixing in the Japan Sea. Chaos theory: modeling, simulation and applications. Selected papers from the 3rd Chaotic Modeling and Simulation International Conference (CHAOS2010). Singapore: World Scientific, 3–13.
  3. Bugaets AN, Gartsman BI, Krasnopeev SA, Bugaets ND (2013) An experience of updated hydrological network data processing using the CUAHSI HIS ODM data management system. Russ Meteorol Hydrol 38:359–366. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bunimovich LA, Ostrovskii AG, Umatani S (1993) Observations of the fractal properties of the Japan Sea surface temperature patterns. Int J Remote Sens 14:2185–2201. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Donlon C J, Martin M, Stark J D, Roberts-Jones J, Fiedler E, Wimmer W (2011) The operational sea surface temperature and sea ice analysis (OSTIA). Remote Sensing of Enviroment Special Issue on (A)ATSR.
  6. Dubina VA, Mitnik LM, Katin IO (2008) Peculiarities of water circulation in Peter the Great Bay based on satellite multisensory data. In: Akulichev VA (ed) Modern state and tendency of variability of the Peter the Great Bay environment. GEOS, Moscow, pp 82–96 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  7. Dubina VA, Fayman PA, Ponomarev VI (2013) Vortex structure of currents in Peter the Great Bay. Izvestiya TINRO 173:247–258 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  8. Durrieu de Madron X, Houpert L, Puig P, Sanchez-Vidal A, Testor P, Bosse A, Estournel C, Somot S, Bourrin F, Bouin MN, Beauverger M, Beguery L, Calafat A, Canals M, Cassou C, Coppola L, Dausse D, D'Ortenzio F, Font J, Heussner S, Kunesch S, Lefevre D, le Goff H, Martín J, Mortier L, Palanques A, Raimbault P (2013) Interaction of dense shelf water cascading and open-sea convection in the northwestern Mediterranean during winter 2012. Geophys Res Lett 40:1379–1385. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fairall CW, Bradley EF, Rogers DP, Edson JB, Young GS (1996) Bulk parameterization of air-sea fluxes for tropical ocean-global atmosphere Coupled-Ocean atmosphere response experiment. J Geophys Res 101:3747–3764. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fayman PA (2003) The currents modeling for Peter the Great Bay on the base of FERHRI survey, 2001. Pacific Oceanogr 1:79–81Google Scholar
  11. Fayman PA, Ponomarev VI (2008) Diagnostic simulation of sea currents in the Peter the Great Bay based on FERHRI oceanographic surveys. Pacific Oceanogr 4:56–64Google Scholar
  12. Kanamitsu M, Ebisuzaki W, Woollen J, Yang SK, Hnilo JJ, Fiorinoand M, Potter GL (2002) NCEP-DEO AMIP-II reanalysis (R-2). Bull Am Meteorol Soc 83:1631–1643. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kawamura H, Wu P (1998) Formation mechanism of Japan Sea proper water in the flux center off Vladivostok. J Geophys Res 103:21611–21622. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kim K-R, Kim G, Kim K, Lobanov L, Ponomarev V, Salyuk A (2002) A sudden bottom-water formation during the severe winter 2000–2001: the case of the East/Japan Sea. Geophys Res Lett 29(8):75-1–75-4. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ladychenko SY, Lobanov VB (2013) Mesoscale eddies in the area of Peter the Great Bay according to satellite data. Izvestiya, Atmos Oceanic Phys 49:939–951. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lobanov V, Salyuk A, Ponomarev V, Talley L, Kim K, Kim K-R, Tishchenko P, Nedashkovskiy A, Kim G-B, Sagalaev S (2002) Renewal of bottom water in the Japan/East Sea. In: Proceedings 17th International Symposium on Okhotsk Sea & Sea Ice, 24–28 February, 2002, Japan, Mombetsu, pp 31–36Google Scholar
  17. Lobanov VB, Ponomarev VI, Salyuk AN, Tishchenko PY, Talley LD (2007) Structure and dynamics of synoptic scale eddies in the northern Japan Sea. In: Far eastern seas of Russia. V. 1. Oceanographic research. Nauka, Moscow, pp 450–473 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  18. Lobanov V, Sergeev A, Gorin I, Shcherbinin P, Voronin A, Kaplunenko D, Popov O, Gulenko T (2014) Observations of dense water cascading along the Peter the Great Bay slope in the northwestern Japan Sea. In: Yu D, Chashechkin, Baydulov VG (Eds.) International Conference on Fluxes and Structures in Fluids, Selected Papers. Moscow: MAKS Press, pp. 142–150Google Scholar
  19. Miyazawa Y, Zhang R, Guo X, Tamura H, Ambe D, Lee J-S, Okuno A, Yoshinari H, Setou T, Komatsu K (2009) Water mass variability in the western North Pacific detected in a 15-year eddy resolving ocean reanalysis. J Oceanogr 65:737–756. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nikitin AA, Lobanov VB, Danchenkov MA (2002) Possible pathways of the transport of warm subtropical waters into the area of the Far East Marine Reserve. Izvestiya TINRO 131:41–53 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  21. Ostrovskii AG (1995) Signatures of stirring and mixing in the Japan Sea surface temperature patterns in autumn 1993 and spring 1994. Geophys Res Lett 22:2357–2360. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ostrovskii AG, Zatsepin AG (2011) Short-term hydrophysical and biological variability over the northeastern Black Sea continental slope as inferred from multiparametric tethered profiler surveys. Ocean Dyn 61:797–806. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ostrovskii AG, Zatsepin AG, Soloviev VA, Tsibulsky AL, Shvoev DA (2013) Autonomous system for vertical profiling of the marine environment at a moored station. Oceanology 53:233–242. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Park JJ, Lim B (2018) A new perspective on origin of the East Sea intermediate water: observations of Argo floats. Prog Oceanogr 160:213–224. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Prants SV, Budyansky MV, Ponomarev VI, Uleysky MY (2011) Lagrangian study of transport and mixing in a mesoscale eddy street. Ocean Model 38:114–125. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Prants SV, Ponomarev VI, Budyansky MV, Uleysky MY, Fayman PA (2013) Lagrangian analysis of mixing and transport of water masses in the marine bays. Izvestiya Atmos Oceanic Phys 49:82–96. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rogachev K (2013) Dynamics of anticyclonic eddies and rapid ventilation of bottom waters in the Ussury Bay, Sea of Japan. Earth Research from Space. 2:42–49.
  28. Sasaki H, Klein P, Qiu B, Sasai Y (2014) Impact of oceanic-scale interactions on the seasonal modulation of ocean dynamics by the atmosphere. Nat Commun 5(5636):5636. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Savelieva N.I. (1989) General circulation in the Amur and Ussuri Bays based on the numerical model simulation. Far-Eastern Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences Publishin House, Vladivostok, 29 p. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  30. Senjyu T (1999) The Japan Sea intermediate water; its characteristics and circulation. J Oceanogr 55:111–122. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Senjyu T, Aramaki T, Otosaka S, Togawa O, Danchenkov M, Karasev E, Volkov Y (2002) Renewal of the bottom water after the winter 2000–2001 may spin-up the thermohaline circulation in the Japan Sea. Geophys Res Lett 29(1149).
  32. Seung Y-H, Yoon J-H (1995) Some features of winter convection in the Japan Sea. J Oceanogr 51:61–73. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shchepetkin AF, McWilliams JC (2003) A method for computing horizontal pressure-gradient force in an oceanic model with a nonaligned vertical coordinate. J Geophys Res 108(C3):3090. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shchepetkin AF, McWilliams JC (2005) The regional ocean modeling system: a split-explicit, free-surface, topography following coordinates ocean model. Ocean Model 9:347–404. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Su Z, Ingersoll AP, Stewart AL, Thompson AF (2016a) Ocean convective available potential energy. Part I: concept and calculation. J Phys Oceanogr 46:1081–1096. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Su Z, Ingersoll AP, Stewart AL, Thompson AF (2016b) Ocean convective available potential energy. Part II: energetics of thermobaric convection and thermobaric cabbeling. J Phys Oceanogr 46:1097–1115. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Su Z, Wang J, Klein P, Thompson AF, Menemenlis D (2018) Ocean submesoscales as a key component of the global heat budget. Nat Commun 9:775. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Talley LD, Lobanov V, Ponomarev V, Salyuk A, Tishchenko P, Zhabin I, Riser S (2003) Deep convection and brine rejection in the Japan Sea. Geophys Res Lett 30(1159).
  39. Talley LD, Min D-H, Lobanov V, Luchin V, Ponomarev V, Salyuk A, Shcherbina AY, Tishchenko PY, Zhabin I (2006) East/Japan Sea water masses and their relation to the Sea's circulation. Oceanogr 19:32–49. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Torres HS, Klein P, Menemenlis D, Qiu B, Su Z, Wang J, Chen S, Fu L-L (2018) Partitioning Ocean motions into balanced motions and internal gravity waves: a modeling study in anticipation of future space missions. J Geophys Res Oceans 123:8084–8105. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Umlauf L, Burchard H (2003) A generic length-scale equation for geophysical turbulenc models. J Mar Res 61:235–265. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Vasilev A S, Makashin V P (1992) Ventilation of the Japan Sea waters in winter. La Mer 30: 169-177Google Scholar
  43. Voltsinger N E, Piaskovskii R V (1977) Theory of the shallow water. Oceanographic problems and numerical methods. L.: Gidrometeoizdat, 206 p. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  44. Yoon J-H, Abe K, Ogata T, Wakamatsu Y (2005) The effects of wind-stress curl on the Japan/East Sea circulation. Deep-Sea Res II Top Stud Oceanogr 52:1827–1844. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yurasov G I, Yarichin V G (1991) Currents in the Japan Sea. Vladivostok, FEB AS USSR, 174 p. (in Russian)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.V.I. Il’ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far Eastern BranchRussian Academy of SciencesVladivostokRussia
  2. 2.Far Eastern Federal UniversityVladivostokRussia
  3. 3.Shirshov Institute of OceanologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  4. 4.Department of Ocean SciencesInha UniversityIncheonSouth Korea
  5. 5.Korea Institute of Ocean Science and TechnologyBusan Metropolitan CitySouth Korea

Personalised recommendations