Advertisement

Assessment of the Suitability of Mine Water Treated with Pervious Concrete for Irrigation Use

  • Ayanda N. ShabalalaEmail author
  • Stephen O. Ekolu
Technical Article
  • 24 Downloads

Abstract

In water scarce countries, the treatment and re-use of polluted mine water can reduce water shortage problem. In this study, the possible use of pervious concrete to treat Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) for irrigation of agricultural crops, was investigated. Pervious concrete mixtures consisting of 6.7 mm granite aggregate and plain portland cement CEM I 52.5R with or without 30% fly ash were prepared and used to conduct column studies on AMD. The AMD types used in the study were obtained from abandoned coal (TDB) and gold (WZ) mines. Physico-chemical parameters of water including the pH, electrical conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), along with element concentrations were analysed. Also the Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP), and Kelly’s ratio (KR) of the treated AMD were calculated and compared against the water quality criteria for irrigation use. Results showed that treated TDB water was unsuitable for irrigation use owing to its high TDS, EC, SSP and KP values, even though its metal concentrations were reduced to satisfactory levels. Conversely, treated WZ water gave low SAR, SSP and KP indices, as well as satisfactory metal concentrations, indicating its suitability for use as irrigation water. The study shows that pervious concrete can be effective in treating AMD for irrigation use, but further research is needed to control high alkalinity and salinity levels in the treated water.

Keywords

Acid mine drainage Irrigation Kelly’s ratio Pervious concrete Sodium adsorption ratio Water quality 

Resumen

Se investigó el posible uso de concreto permeable para tratar el drenaje ácido de minas (AMD) para el riego de cultivos agrícolas. Se prepararon mezclas de concreto permeable que consistían en agregado de granito de 6.7 mm y cemento Portland liso CEM I 52.5R (CEM I), con o sin 30% de cenizas volantes (30% de AF), en estudios de columna con AMD. El AMD utilizado en este estudio se obtuvo de minas abandonadas de carbón (TDB) y de oro (WZ). Las concentraciones de metales en TDB tratada o WZ generalmente se redujeron a niveles satisfactorios para el riego, aunque el concreto permeable no influyó significativamente en la conductividad eléctrica, los sólidos disueltos totales, el porcentaje de sodio soluble o la proporción de Kelly. El concreto permeable de CEM I aumentó las concentraciones de Cr6+ por encima de los límites aceptables para el riego, pero el uso de un 30% de hormigón de FA redujo los niveles de Cr6+ a los límites permisibles. Se encontró que el concreto permeable es más adecuado para tratar la AMD con bajas concentraciones de álcalis, como la WZ, para producir agua para el riego.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The research work presented in this paper was financially supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of South Africa, IPRR Grant No. 96800 and the University of Mpumalanga (UMP). The authors are grateful for the support given by NRF and UMP.

Supplementary material

10230_2019_633_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (172 kb)
Supplementary material 1: Supplemental Figure S-1: Changes in Kelly’s ratio with time during the column experiment. (PDF 171 kb)
10230_2019_633_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (173 kb)
Supplementary material 2: Supplemental Figure S-2: Change in concentration of sodium soluble percentage with time during the experiment. (PDF 173 kb)

References

  1. Alobaidy AHMJ, Al-Sameraiy M, Kadhem AJ, Majeed AA (2010) Evaluation of treated municipal wastewater quality for irrigation. J Environ Prot 01(03):216–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Annandale JG, Jovanovic NZ, Pretorius JJB, Lorentz SA, Rethman NFG, Tanner PD (2001) Gypsiferous mine water use in irrigation on rehabilitated open-cast mine land: Crop production, soil water and salt balance. Ecol Eng 17:153–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aube B (2004) The science of treating acid mine drainage and smelter effluents, 361 Aumais, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada, p 23. http://www.enviraube.com. Accessed 18 June 2017
  4. Ayers RS, Westcot DW (1989) Water quality for agriculture, irrigation and drainage paper 29, rev. 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  5. Das BM (1998) Principles of geotechnical engineering, 4th edn. PWS Publishing Co., MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  6. Donnenfeld Z, Crookes C, Hedden S (2018) A delicate balance- water scarcity in South Africa. Inst Secur Stud S Afr Rep 13:2Google Scholar
  7. DWA (1996) South african water quality guidelines. Agricultural use: irrigation, vol 4, 2nd edn. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  8. Ekolu SO, Katadi BL (2018) Prediction of longevities of ZVI and pervious concrete reactive barriers using the transport simulation model. J Environ Eng 144(9):04018074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ekolu SO, Azene FZ, Diop S (2014) A concrete reactive barrier for acid mine drainage treatment, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Water Manage 167:373–380Google Scholar
  10. Ekolu SO, Diop S, Azene FZ (2016) Properties of pervious concrete for hydrological applications, Concrete Beton. J Concr Soc S Afr 18–24Google Scholar
  11. FAO (1992) Wastewater treatment and use in agriculture. In: Pescod MB (ed) Irrigation and drainage paper 47. FAO, Rome, p 29Google Scholar
  12. Feng G, Zhang B, Wan C, Lu P, Bakour A (2017) Effects of saline water irrigation on soil salinity and yield of summer maize (Zea mays L.) in subsurface drainage system. Agr Water Manage 193:205–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kelly WP (1963) Use of Saline Irrigation. Water Soil Sci 95:355–391Google Scholar
  14. Lantzke N, Calder T, Burt J (2016) Water salinity and plant irrigation. Government of Western Australia, Department of Primary industries and regional development. https://www.agric.wa.gov.au. Accessed 02 Oct 2018
  15. Libutti A, Gatta G, Gagliardi A, Vergine P, Pollice A, Beneduce L, Disciglio G, Tarantino E (2018) Agro-industrial wastewater reuse for irrigation of a vegetable crop succession under Mediterranean conditions. Agric Water Manage 196:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nanotechnology Public Engagement Programme (NPEP) (2016) Treating mining waste water. https://www.npep.co.za. Accessed 01 Oct 2018
  17. Nnadi EO, Newman AP, Coupe SJ, Mbanaso FU (2015) Stormwater harvesting for irrigation purposes: an investigation of chemical quality of water recycled in pervious pavement system. J Environ Manage 147:246–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ochieng GM, Seanego ES, Nkwonta OI (2010) Impacts of mining on water resources in South Africa: a review. Sci Res Essays 5:3351–3357Google Scholar
  19. PerkinElmer (2003) ELAN version 3.0 software guide: simplify ultra-trace analysis. PerkinElmer, OntarioGoogle Scholar
  20. Pescod MB (1985) Wastewater treatment, and use in agriculture. FAO irrigation and drainage paper no. 47. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  21. Pradhan D, Sukla LD, Sawyer M, Rahman PK (2017) Recent bioreduction of hexavalent chromium in wastewater treatment: a review. J Ind Eng Chem 55:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Raptis S, Gasparatos D, Economou-Eliopoulos M, Petridis A (2018) Chromium uptake by lettuce as affected by the application of organic matter and Cr(VI)-irrigation water: implications to the land use and water management. Chemosphere 210:597–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Satyanarayana E, Ratnakar D, Muralidhar M (2016) Major Ion chemistry of groundwater and surface water in parts of Mulugu-Venkatapur Mandal, Warangal District, Telangana State, India. Hydrol Current Res 7:253.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7587.1000253 Google Scholar
  24. Seneviratne M (2007) A Practical approach to water conservation for commercial and industrial facilities, Queensland Water Commission. Elsevier Ltd., Netherlands, p 372 (978-1-85-617489-3) Google Scholar
  25. Shabalala A (2013) Assessment of locally available reactive materials for use impermeable reactive barriers (PRBs) in remediating acid mine drainage. WaterSA 39:251–256Google Scholar
  26. Shabalala AN, Ekolu SO, Diop S, Solomon F (2017) Pervious concrete reactive barrier for removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage-column study. J Hazard Mater 323:641–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Shah SM, Mistry MJ (2013) Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for an agriculture use in, District Vadodara, Gujarat, India. Res J Eng Sci 2:1–5Google Scholar
  28. Shah A, Wu X, Ullah A, Fahad S, Muhammad R, Yan L, Jiang C (2017) Deficiency and toxicity of boron: alterations in growth, oxidative damage and uptake by citrange orange plants. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 145:575–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shakir E, Zahraw Z, Al-Obaidy AH (2017) Environmental and health risks associated with reuse of wastewater for irrigation. Egypt J Petrol 26:95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Singh PK, Deshbhratar PB, Ramteke DS (2012) Effects of sewage wastewater irrigation on soil properties, crop yield and environment. Agric Water Manage 103:100–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Solpuker U, Sheets J, Kim Y, Schwartz FW (2014) Leaching potential of pervious concrete and immobilization of Cu, Pb and Zn using pervious concrete. J Contam Hydrol 161:35–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Suarez DL, Wood JD, Lesch SM (2006) Effect of SAR on water infiltration under a sequential rain–irrigation management system. Agric Water Manag 86:150–164.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2006.07.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tseng C, Lei C, Chen Y (2018) Evaluating the health costs of oral hexavalent chromium exposure from water pollution: a case study in Taiwan. J Clean Prod 172:819–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Urbano VR, Mendonca TG, Bastos RG, Souza CF (2017) Effects of treated wastewater irrigation on soil properties and lettuce yield. Agric Water Manage 181:108–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. van Zyl HC, Maree JP, van Niekerk AM, van Tonder GJ, Naidoo C (2001) Collection, treatment and re-use of mine water in the Olifants River Catchment. J South Afr Inst Min Metal 101:41–46Google Scholar
  36. Vergine P, Salerno C, Libutti A, Beneduce L, Gatta G, Berardi G, Pollice A (2017) Closing the water cycle in the agro-industrial sector by reusing treated wastewater for irrigation. J Clean Prod 164:587–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Water Quality Association WQA (2003) Chromium fact sheet. https://www.wqa.org. Accessed 04 Oct 2018
  38. WHO (2003) Chromium in drinking-water. Background document for preparation of WHO Guidelines for drinking-water quality. World Health Organization, Geneva (WHO/SDE/WSH/03.04/4) Google Scholar
  39. Zhong R, Leng Z, Poon CS (2018) Research and application of pervious concrete as a sustainable pavement material: a state of the art and state of the practice review. Constr Build Mater 183:544–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of JohannesburgAuckland ParkSouth Africa
  2. 2.University of MpumalangaMbombelaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations