Mine Water and the Environment

, Volume 38, Issue 4, pp 827–836 | Cite as

Mechanical Model on Water Inrush Assessment Related to Deep Mining Above Multiple Aquifers

  • Liming Yin
  • Kai MaEmail author
  • Juntao Chen
  • Yanchao Xue
  • Ziqi Wang
  • Boqiang Cui
Technical Article


To deal with a water inrush issue that occurs in deep mines in China with more than one aquifer below the floor, the “down three zone” analysis method was modified to establish a conceptual model to evaluate the risk and mechanism of a water inrush. The model comprehensively considers the mechanical action, hydraulic connection, head loss of multiple aquifers, and an analysis of the complexity of water inrush in a multi-aquifer system to define water inrush conditions and criteria of different water inrush modes. There are four types of water inrush modes in a deep multi-aquifer system: single aquifer water inrush, multi-aquifer linkage water inrush, single aquifer lagging water inrush, and linked multi-aquifer lagging water inrush. Preventive and control measures for each of these are provided, based on: preventing linkage, eliminating hysteresis, preventing an inrush from a single aquifer, and preventing inrushes step by step.


Mechanical action Hydraulic connection Head loss Conditions and criteria Water inrush modes 

Mechanistisches Model für die Bewertung von Wassereinbrüchen bei tiefem Bergbau mit mehreren Aquiferen im Liegenden


Um das Risiko und die Mechanismen von Wassereinbrüchen in tiefen chinesischen Bergwerken mit mehr als einem Aquifer im Liegenden zu bewerten, wurde der übliche „down three zone“-Ansatz durch die Entwicklung eines konzeptionellen Modells modifiziert. Das Modell berücksichtigt umfassend die mechanischen Vorgänge, die hydraulische Verbindung, die Druckverluste der Aquifere und eine Analyse der Komplexität des Wassereinbruchs in einem Multi-Aquifer-System, um die Bedingungen eines Wassereinbruchs und die Kriterien für unterschiedliche Wassereinbruchtypen zu bestimmen. In tiefen Multi-Aqufer-Systemen gibt es vier Wassereinbruchtypen: Einzel-Aquifer-Wassereinbrüche, verknüpfte Multi-Aquifer-Wassereinbrüche, verzögerte Einzel-Aquifer-Wassereinbrüche und verknüpfte verzögerte Multi-Aquifer-Wassereinbrüche. Für alle Typen werden präventive und Kontrollierende Maßnahmen vorgeschlagen. Sie basieren auf der Verhinderung von Verknüpfung, der Beseitigung von Hysterese, der Verhinderung des Wassereinbruchs aus einem einzelnen Aquifer und der Verhinderung eines Wassereinbruchs Schritt für Schritt.

Modelo mecánico para la evaluación de la irrupción de agua relacionada con la minería profunda sobre múltiples acuíferos


Para lidiar con un problema de irrupción de agua que ocurre en minas profundas en China con más de un acuífero debajo del piso, se modificó el método de análisis de “tres zonas abajo” para establecer un modelo conceptual para evaluar el riesgo y el mecanismo de irrupción de agua. El modelo considera de manera integral la acción mecánica, la conexión hidráulica, la pérdida de carga de múltiples acuíferos y un análisis de la complejidad de la irrupción de agua en un sistema de múltiples acuíferos para definir las condiciones y los criterios de los diferentes modos de irrupción de agua. Hay cuatro tipos de irrupción de agua en un sistema de múltiples acuíferos: desde un solo acuífero, desde varios acuíferos, retraso en la irrupción de agua desde un solo acuífero y retraso en la irrupción de agua desde varios acuíferos. Se proporcionan medidas preventivas y de control para cada uno de estos casos, basadas en la prevención del enlace, la eliminación de la histéresis, la prevención de la irrupción desde un solo acuífero y la prevención de irrupciones paso a paso.






The authors thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments that helped to improve the quality of the paper. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51604167), Postdoctoral Science Special Foundation of China (2015T80731), Postdoctoral Science Foundation Funding of China (2016M601171), and the Shandong Key Research and Development Project (2018GSF117018).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Mine Disaster Prevention and ControlShandong University of Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina
  2. 2.China School of Resources and Civil EngineeringNortheastern UniversityShenyangChina

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