Mine Water and the Environment

, Volume 37, Issue 3, pp 528–540 | Cite as

Hydrochemical Characteristics and Groundwater Source Identification of a Multiple Aquifer System in a Coal Mine

  • Jiazhong Qian
  • Yan Tong
  • Lei MaEmail author
  • Weidong Zhao
  • Ruigang Zhang
  • Xiaorui He
Technical Article


Hydrochemical analysis and Bayesian discrimination were used to identify groundwater sources for multiple aquifers in the Panyi Coal Mine, Anhui, China. The results showed that the Cenozoic top aquifer water were HCO3−Na+K−Ca and HCO3−Na+K−Mg types, which distinguished it from the other aquifers due to its low Na+ + K+ and Cl concentrations. The Cenozoic middle and Cenozoic bottom aquifer waters were mainly Cl−Na+K and SO4−Cl−Na+K types. The water types in the Permian fractured aquifer changed from Cl−Na+K to HCO3−Cl−Na+K and HCO3−Na+K moving away from the Panji anticline. In addition, HCO3 concentrations increased and Ca2+ concentrations decreased with depth in the aquifer. The Taiyuan limestone aquifers were of Cl−Na+K, SO4·Cl−Na+K, and HCO3·Cl−Na+K types, and are very difficult to distinguish from the other aquifers. The precision of the Bayesian discrimination based on groundwater chemistry was 86.09%. Water chemistry indicators in the Permian fractured aquifer were moderately to highly variable and moderately to strongly correlated, spatially. The water chemistry spatial distribution indicates that the Permian fractured aquifer is recharged by the Cenozoic bottom aquifer near the Panji anticline, which reduces the accuracy of Bayesian discrimination in that area.


Water-inrush Hydrochemistry Geostatistics Bayesian discrimination 



利用水化学分析法和贝叶斯判别法识别了安徽潘一矿多含水层系统地下水源。结果表明,新生界顶部含水层水为HCO3-Na+K-Ca型和HCO3-Na+K-Mg型,以低浓度Na++K+和Cl-区别于其它含水层水。新生界中段和底部含水层水为Cl-Na+K型和SO4-Cl-Na+K型。二叠裂隙含水层水主要为Cl-Na+K型 至 HCO3-Cl-Na+K型和HCO3-Na+K型。另外,随含水层深度增大,HCO 3 - 浓度增大而Ca2+浓度减小。太原组灰岩含水层水类型为Cl-Na+K型、SO4·Cl-Na+K型和HCO3·Cl-Na+K型,难以与其它含水层区分。基于地下水化学特征的贝叶斯水源识别精确度达86.09%。二叠裂隙水水化学特征指标中至强变化且空间上中至强相关。水化学空间分布特征表明二叠裂隙含水层在潘一背斜附近接受新生界底部含水层水补给,贝叶斯水源判别在该区精度降低。

Hydrochemische Charakterisierung und Identifikation der Grundwasserherkunft in einem Multiplen Grundwasserleitersystem in einer Kohlenmine


Hydrochemische Analysen und Bayesianische Diskriminanzanalysen (BDA) wurden genutzt um die Grundwasserherkunft für multiple Grundwasserleiter in der Panyi Kohlenmine, Anhui, China zu identifizieren. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass die hangenden känozoischen Wässer vom Typ HCO3-Na+K-Ca und HCO3-Na+K-Mg sind, was sie von den anderen Aquiferen durch die geringen Na++K+ und Cl- Konzentrationen unterscheidet. Der mittlere und untere Aquifer des Känozoikums sind hauptsächlich vom Typ Cl-Na+K und SO4-Cl-Na+K. Der Wassertyp in dem geklüfteten permischen Aquifer ändert sich von Cl-Na+K zu HCO3-Cl-Na+K und HCO3-Na+K und strömt der Panji - Antiklinale ab. Zusätzlich nehmen die HCO3- Konzentrationen mit zunehmender Tiefe im Aquifer zu und die Ca2+ Konzentrationen ab. Die Grundwasserleiter des Taiyuan - Kalksteins sind vom Typ Cl-Na+K, SO4•Cl-Na+K, und HCO3•Cl-Na+K und sind sehr schwer von den anderen Grundwässern zu unterscheiden. Die Genauigkeit der BDA auf Basis der Hydrochemie ist 86.09%. Hydrochemische Indikatoren im permischen Kluftaquifer waren räumlich mäßig bis stark variabel und mäßig bis stark korreliert. Die räumliche Verteilung der Wasserchemie zeigt, dass der permische Kluftaquifer aus dem känozoischen unteren Aquifer nahe der Panji – Antiklinale angereichert wird, was die Genauigkeit der BDA in dieser Region reduziert.

Características hidroquímicas e identificación del origen del agua subterránea de un sistema acuífero múltiple en una mina de carbón


Los análisis hidroquímicos y el análisis discriminante de Bayes se utilizaron para identificar el origen de agua subterránea para acuíferos múltiples en la mina de carbón Panyi, Anhui, China. Los resultados mostraron que las aguas superiores del acuífero Cenozoico fueron del tipo HCO3-Na+K-Ca y HCO3-Na+K-Mg, lo que lo distinguió de otros acuíferos debido a su bajas concentraciones Na++K+ y Cl-. Las aguas medias e inferiores del acuífero cenozoico fueron principalmente del tipo Cl-Na+K y SO4-Cl-Na+K. Los tipos de agua en el acuífero Permian cambiaron del tipo Cl-Na+K a HCO3-Cl-Na+K y HCO3-Na+K alejándose del anticlinal Panji. En adición, las concentraciones de HCO3- se incrementaron y las concentraciones de Ca2+ decrecieron con la profundidad en el acuífero. Los acuíferos de piedra caliza Taiyuan fueron del tipo Cl-Na+K, SO4•Cl-Na+K y HCO3•Cl-Na+K y son muy difíciles de distinguir de otros acuíferos. La precisión del análisis discriminante de Bayes basado en la química del agua subterránea fue 86,09 %. Los indicadores de la química del agua en el acuífero fracturado fueron desde moderada a altamente variables y desde moderada hasta fuertemente correlacionados espacialmente. La distribución especial de la química del agua indica que el acuífero fractura es recargado por el acuífero Cenozoico inferior cerca de la anticlinal Panji que reduce la exactitud del análisis discriminante en esa área.



This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41602256, 41641021, and 41301537) and the Science and Technology Fund of Land and Resources of Anhui Province (2016-k-11).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiazhong Qian
    • 1
  • Yan Tong
    • 1
  • Lei Ma
    • 1
    Email author
  • Weidong Zhao
    • 1
  • Ruigang Zhang
    • 2
  • Xiaorui He
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Resources and Environmental EngineeringHefei University of TechnologyHefeiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of Civil EngineeringHefei University of TechnologyHefeiPeople’s Republic of China

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