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Contrasting intra-annual inorganic carbon dynamics and air–water CO2 exchange in Dhamra and Mahanadi Estuaries of northern Bay of Bengal, India

  • Suchismita PattanaikEmail author
  • Abhra Chanda
  • Rajesh Kumar Sahoo
  • Sanhita Swain
  • Deepty Ranjan Satapathy
  • Chitta Ranjan Panda
  • Saroj Bandhu Choudhury
  • Pradipta Kumar Mohapatra
Research paper


Surface water partial pressure of carbon dioxide [pCO2 (water)], total alkalinity (TA), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and air–water CO2 flux were measured in two estuaries of the Bay of Bengal namely Mahanadi and Dhamra. Though the annual average air–water CO2 fluxes at the Mahanadi and the Dhamra Estuaries were − 3.9 ± 21.4 (mean ± standard deviation) µmol m−2 h−1 and − 2.9 ± 11.6 µmol m−2 h−1, respectively, the intra-annual variation of air–water CO2 fluxes in the two estuaries was contrasting. Nonetheless, from the perspective of net primary productivity, the surface water of both the estuaries were found autotrophic throughout the study period with varying rates at different seasons and highest during summer months. Mahanadi Estuary acted as a CO2 source toward atmosphere during monsoon months, whereas, Dhamra Estuary acted as a source during pre-monsoon months. On the contrary, Mahanadi and Dhamra Estuaries acted as CO2 sink during pre-monsoon months and monsoon months, respectively. The salinity in Mahanadi Estuary was much lower compared to Dhamra, which indicated significant freshwater discharge rich in organic carbon, and the remineralization of this carbon to DIC during summer and monsoon months explained the CO2 source character. Whereas, in Dhamra, reduced freshwater flow and high turbidity were held accountable for net heterotrophic character of the water column during the post-monsoon months. The annual data set of air–water CO2 fluxes from these two estuaries produced from this study could be utilized in future to fill the data gap and upscale the Indian estuaries scenario from the perspective of blue carbon budgeting.


Estuary Air–water CO2 flux Total alkalinity Primary productivity Photosynthetic performance 



We would like to thank Director, CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology for providing the laboratory facilities. We would like to thank Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Government of India for the research support. Suchismita Pattanaik is thankful to Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) for providing CSIR-SRF fellowship. The authors are also grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their suggestions and recommendation which enhanced the academic quality of the manuscript.

Supplementary material

10201_2019_592_MOESM1_ESM.docx (214 kb)
Supplementary file1 (DOCX 213 kb)


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Limnology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suchismita Pattanaik
    • 1
    Email author
  • Abhra Chanda
    • 2
  • Rajesh Kumar Sahoo
    • 1
  • Sanhita Swain
    • 1
  • Deepty Ranjan Satapathy
    • 1
  • Chitta Ranjan Panda
    • 1
  • Saroj Bandhu Choudhury
    • 3
  • Pradipta Kumar Mohapatra
    • 4
  1. 1.CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials TechnologyBhubaneswarIndia
  2. 2.School of Oceanographic StudiesJadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia
  3. 3.National Remote Sensing CentreISROHyderabadIndia
  4. 4.Department of BotanyRavenshaw UniversityCuttackIndia

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