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Limnology

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Does the dispersal of fairy shrimps (Branchiopoda, Anostraca) reflect the shifting geographical distribution of freshwaters since the late Mesozoic?

  • Hidetoshi NaganawaEmail author
  • Elena Yu. Naumova
  • Natalia N. Denikina
  • Ilya G. Kondratov
  • Elena V. Dzyuba
  • Atsushi Iwasawa
Special Feature: Original Article Freshwater Ecosystems - Key Problems and New Findings from Russian Lakes including Lake Baikal

Abstract

Order Anostraca (fairy shrimp of large branchiopods) is a primitive crustacean group, retaining ancient forms and ecology. The Holarctic family Chirocephalidae originated over 100 million years ago; it is a very long-lived freshwater taxon that has survived from the Mesozoic to the present. Thus, using this taxon as an indicator, we verified how the geographical distribution of freshwaters shifted during the ancient era. We used newly collected samples of Drepanosurus uchidai from Aomori (northern Japan) and Galaziella baikalensis and Branchinecta orientalis from Olkhon Island (the largest lake-bound island of Lake Baikal, Russia) to sequence 658 bp of COI gene. These sequences, plus those of 16S rRNA gene (~ 550-bp mt16S rDNA fragment), were compared with those retrieved from GenBank. To re-evaluate and clarify phylogenetic relationships among the Chirocephalidae that remains confused till now, six genera of the family, including Polyartemiella, Drepanosurus, Eubranchipus, Chirocephalus, Artemiopsis, and Galaziella species were used for molecular analyses. Small water bodies usually have comparatively short lives and fade away sooner or later due to growth of aquatic plants and accumulation of bottom sediments. In such environments, refugia formed on the shores of large-scale lakes were necessary for large branchiopods to survive several Ice Ages. The lake shorelines have moved with the growth or decline of the lakes, but the habitats of large branchiopods sporadically left behind can now be confirmed as a history of the shifting geographical distribution of global freshwaters. For example, two types of large branchiopod populations from island-bound water bodies on Olkhon Island are recognized: (1) populations on the northwestern coast that are closely related to the group in the Mongolian Gobi steppe region, and (2) populations in other areas distant from the coast that are highly endemic to the island. Based on fossil records and genetic distances, an absolute differentiation time of world chirocephalids can be estimated as 140 million years ago in the Mesozoic era. On the other hand, the age of Lake Baikal is only 25‒30 million years at the most. Therefore, extant large branchiopods of Olkhon Island must have first appeared near the present lake catchment after separation from their ancestral populations that had originated in Europe, and before the formation of Lake Baikal.

Keywords

Large branchiopods Fairy shrimp Drepanosurus Galaziella Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal) 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper is dedicated with pleasure to the memory of our late colleague, an excellent scientific interpreter, Ms. Galina Ivanovna Nagornaya. We are grateful to the organizers of the International Conference FEKP-2018 (Irkutsk, Russia) for inviting us and acknowledge the grant from The United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Gifu University, Japan which allowed H.N.’s participation in the Conference. H.N. also thanks Professors Yasunori Koya and Tomohiro Sasanami for their suggestive comments and encouragement. Two anonymous reviewers, Professor Marianne V. Moore, Professor Masumi Yamamuro (The University of Tokyo), and Dr. Sachi Sri Kantha contributed helpful advice from which this manuscript greatly benefited. Mr. Akira Ooyagi (Aomori, Japan) is thanked for the generous gifts of his collected samples, especially of Drepanosurus uchidai; and Alexey I. Orgilyanov and his colleagues at the Institute of the Earth’s Crust, as well as the staff members at Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Irkutsk) are also for their skilled technical assistance. This research was partly supported by the Russian Basic Research Project (0345-2019-0002): “Molecular ecology and evolution of living systems of the Central Asia in global ecological change conditions”.

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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Limnology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Comparative Biochemistry, The United Graduate School of Agricultural ScienceGifu UniversityGifuJapan
  2. 2.Laboratory of Ichthyology, Limnological InstituteSiberian Branch of the Russian Academy of SciencesIrkutskRussia
  3. 3.Laboratory of Analytical and Bioorganic Chemistry, Limnological InstituteSiberian Branch of the Russian Academy of SciencesIrkutskRussia

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