Microsatellite loci transferability and genetic diversity of the aquatic plant Nymphoides fallax Ornduff (Menyanthaceae), endemic to the Mexican and Guatemalan highlands
Nymphoides species are cosmopolitan aquatics with floating leaves and frequent in freshwater wetlands. Nymphoides fallax is restricted to highlands of Mexico and Guatemala. We tested the transferability of 10 microsatellite loci previously developed for N. peltata in 18 populations of N. fallax. Seven polymorphic loci were successfully amplified. Allele sizes were automatically obtained using 2100 Bioanalyzer Expert software. Genotypes were determined using the allele dosage method. Chromosome counts confirmed that N. fallax is a tetraploid. Alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 17; the observed and expected heterozygosities per population ranged from 0.51 to 0.66 and from 0.72 to 0.81, respectively. We observed higher genetic diversity within populations (92%) than among populations (8%). Our results show that cross-amplification is a valid technique for studying Nymphoides. No clones were found, indicating that N. fallax relies heavily on sexual reproduction. Our work may stimulate further population genetic studies of the genus Nymphoides that could be useful for conservation programs, as well as to promote additional research on landscape genetics and reproductive mechanisms in aquatic plants.
KeywordsLab-on-a-chip capillary electrophoresis Macrophyte Population genetics SSR Temporary wetlands polyploidy
The research was funded by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACyT) through the Laboratorio Nacional de Identificación y Caracterización Vegetal (LaniVeg) research grants during 2016 (No. 272045) and 2017 (No. 281478). The first author holds a postgraduate fellowship from CONACyT (No. 590633). Laboratory work was carried out in Molecular and Plant Systematic Laboratory at the University of Guadalajara. We thank Noemi Cobian and Pilar Zamora for assistance with the molecular analysis, Alex Villalvazo for assistance with the chromosomes count, Marcelo Silva, Roberto Vizcaya, Gerardo Guerrero, and Carlos Varela (in memoriam) for field assistance. We appreciate the comments of two anonymous reviewers.
Conceived and designed the experiments: TLdM DCT MM. Performed the experiments: TLdM. Analyzed the data: TLdM DCT. Wrote the paper: TLdM. Reviewed drafts of the paper: DCT MM.
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