, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 93–100 | Cite as

Modern lake ecosystem management by sustainable harvesting and effective utilization of aquatic macrophytes

  • Syuhei BanEmail author
  • Tatsuki Toda
  • Mitsuhiko Koyama
  • Kanako Ishikawa
  • Ayato Kohzu
  • Akio Imai
Special Feature: Review Ecological and limnological bases for management of overgrown macrophytes


There are many problems related to overgrowth of aquatic macrophytes in many lakes and rivers throughout the world; for instance, the harvesting costs in Lake Biwa have been increasing by 200 million Japanese yen a year (equivalent to 1.8 million USD). Historically, aquatic macrophytes were harvested for use as fertilizer in agriculture in Japan, but are no longer in use because chemical fertilizers promote plant growth more effectively and are easier and cheaper to use. Thus, developing effective ways to utilize aquatic macrophytes is important to resolve this issue. In addition, sustainably harvesting macrophytes is also important for aquatic ecosystem management because macrophytes play a key role in aquatic ecosystems as nursery grounds and refuges for other small organisms living in the littoral area. Therefore, management and effective utilization of macrophytes through sustainable harvesting may play an important role in the conservation of lake ecosystems. In this short review, a recycling system using anaerobic digestion (AD) of submerged macrophytes, which were sustainably harvested from lakes, and microalgal mass culturing with AD effluent were introduced as a new technique for the conservation of lake ecosystems.


Ecosystem managements Aquatic macrophytes Sustainable utilization Anaerobic digestion Mass culture of microalgae 



We thank two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions for our manuscript. This study was supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan (4-1406).


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Limnology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Shiga PrefectureHikoneJapan
  2. 2.Soka UniversityHachiojiJapan
  3. 3.Lake Biwa Environmental Research InstituteOtsuJapan
  4. 4.National Institute for Environmental Studies, Center for Regional Environmental ResearchTsukubaJapan
  5. 5.National Institute for Environmental Studies, Lake Biwa Branch OfficeOtsuJapan
  6. 6.School of Environment and SocietyTokyo Institute of TechnologyTokyoJapan

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