The European Journal of Health Economics

, Volume 20, Issue 7, pp 1013–1027 | Cite as

Is socioeconomic inequality in postnatal depression an early-life root of disadvantage for children?

  • Jemimah RideEmail author
Original Paper


This paper investigates the role that socioeconomic inequality in postnatal depression might play in intergenerational transmission of inequality. Infants’ development is thought to be particularly sensitive to mothers’ mental health at this time, suggesting that greater early-life exposure to maternal depression among disadvantaged groups might be a root of later socioeconomic inequalities. Heightened contact with health services during this period presents opportunities for intervention, but higher unmet need for treatment of postnatal depression among the disadvantaged might be widening inequalities. The aim of this study is to quantify the potential contribution of postnatal depression to socioeconomic inequalities in adverse childhood health and development outcomes. Regression-based decomposition of the concentration index is used to explore the association between income inequality in postnatal depressive symptoms and income inequality in children’s outcomes. Four problems of early adolescence are explored: emotional and conduct problems, special educational needs, and low self-assessed health. Data are taken from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, with a sample of 4359 mothers and children with complete data on outcomes and covariates, and a second sample of 5441 when missing covariates are filled using multiple imputation. The key finding is that socioeconomic inequality in maternal postnatal depression is a significant contributor to inequalities in special educational needs, emotional problems, and low self-assessed health for children at age 11 years, even after accounting for a range of other factors that might explain such associations. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the impact of postnatal depression interventions on inequalities, and the downstream influence on children’s outcomes. Addressing inequalities in mothers’ postnatal depression might be an avenue for reducing early-life disadvantage for children.


UK Socioeconomic inequality Postnatal depression Childhood difficulties Decomposition of the concentration index 

JEL Classification




I am very grateful to Guido Erreygers, Stavros Petrou, Dennis Petrie, and Emily Lancsar for their helpful advice and comments on earlier versions of this paper.

Supplementary material

10198_2019_1073_MOESM1_ESM.docx (54 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 54 kb)


  1. 1.
    Reiss, F.: Socioeconomic inequalities and mental health problems in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Soc. Sci. Med. 90, 24–31 (2013). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Case, A., Lubotsky, D., Paxson, C.: Economic status and health in childhood: the origins of the gradient. Am. Econ. Rev. 92(5), 1308–1334 (2002)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fleurbaey, M., Schokkaert, E.: Unfair health inequality. In: Culyer, A.J. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Health Economics. Academic Press, Amsterdam (2014)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Marmot, M., Bell, R.: Fair society, healthy lives. Public. Health. 126(Suppl 1), S4–S10 (2012). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Haas, S.: Trajectories of functional health: the ‘long arm’ of childhood health and socioeconomic factors. Soc. Sci. Med. 66(4), 849–861 (2008). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Goodman, A., Joyce, R., Smith, J.P.: The long shadow cast by childhood physical and mental problems on adult life. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108, 6032–6037 (2011)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Crombie, I.K., Irvine, L., Elliott, L., Wallace, H.: Closing the health inequalities gap: an intenational perspective. World Health Organization Europe, Copenhagen (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Elgar, F.J., Pförtner, T.-K., Moor, I., De Clercq, B., Stevens, G.W., Currie, C.: Socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health 2002–2010: a time-series analysis of 34 countries participating in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Lancet. 385(9982), 2088–2095 (2015)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gavin, N.I., Gaynes, B.N., Lohr, K.N., Meltzer-Brody, S., Gartlehner, G., Swinson, T.: Perinatal depression: a systematic review of prevalence and incidence. Obstet. Gynecol. 106(5 Pt 1), 1071–1083 (2005). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Roberts, J., Donkin, A., Marmot, M.: Opportunities for reducing socioeconomic inequalities in the mental health of children and young people—reducing adversity and increasing resilience. J. Public. Mental. Health. 15(1), 4–18 (2016)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Matijasevich, A., Golding, J., Smith, G.D., Santos, I.S., Barros, A.J., Victora, C.G.: Differentials and income-related inequalities in maternal depression during the first two years after childbirth: birth cohort studies from Brazil and the UK. Clin. Pract. Epidemiol. Mental. Health. 5, 12 (2009). Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Seguin, L., Potvin, L., St-Denis, M., Loiselle, J.: Socio-environmental factors and postnatal depressive symptomatology: a longitudinal study. Women. Health. 29(1), 57–72 (1999)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ban, L., Gibson, J.E., West, J., Fiaschi, L., Oates, M.R., Tata, L.J.: Impact of socioeconomic deprivation on maternal perinatal mental illnesses presenting to UK general practice. Brit. J. Gen. Pract. 62(603), e671–e678 (2012). Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goyal, D., Gay, C., Lee, K.A.: How much does low socioeconomic status increase the risk of prenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms in first-time mothers? Women’s. Health. Issues. 20(2), 96–104 (2010)PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mayberry, L.J., Horowitz, J.A., Declercq, E.: Depression symptom prevalence and demographic risk factors among US women during the first 2 years postpartum. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Neonatal. Nurs. 36(6), 542–549 (2007). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    O’Hara, M.W., McCabe, J.E.: Postpartum depression: current status and future directions. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 9, 379–407 (2013)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hahn-Holbrook, J., Cornwell-Hinrichs, T., Anaya, I.: Economic and health predictors of national postpartum depression prevalence: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression of 291 studies from 56 countries. Front. Psychiatry. 8, 248 (2018)PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stein, A., Pearson, R.M., Goodman, S.H., Rapa, E., Rahman, A., McCallum, M., Howard, L.M., Pariante, C.M.: Effects of perinatal mental disorders on the fetus and child. Lancet. 384(9956), 1800–1819 (2014)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Goodman, S.H., Rouse, M.H., Connell, A.M., Broth, M.R., Hall, C.M., Heyward, D.: Maternal depression and child psychopathology: a meta-analytic review. Clin. Child. Fam. Psychol. Rev. 14(1), 1–27 (2011)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ahun, M.N., Côté, S.M.: Maternal depressive symptoms and early childhood cognitive development: a review of putative environmental mediators. Arch. Women’s. Mental. Health. 22(1), 15–24 (2019). Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Goodman, J.H.: Postpartum depression beyond the early postpartum period. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Neonatal. Nurs. 33(4), 410–420 (2004). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Philipps, L.H.C., O’Hara, M.W.: Prospective-study of postpartum depression—41/2-year follow-up of women and children. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 100(2), 151–155 (1991). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Turney, K.: Prevalence and correlates of stability and change in maternal depression: evidence from the fragile families and child wellbeing study. PLoS. One. 7(9), e45709 (2012). PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Netsi, E., Pearson, R.M., Murray, L., Cooper, P., Craske, M.G., Stein, A.: Association of persistent and severe postnatal depression with child outcomes. JAMA. Psychiatry. 75(3), 247–253 (2018)PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stein, A., Pearson, R.M., Goodman, S.H., Rapa, E., Rahman, A., McCallum, M., Howard, L.M., Pariante, C.M.: Effects of perinatal mental disorders on the fetus and child. Lancet. 384(9956), 1800–1819 (2014). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tsivos, Z.-L., Calam, R., Sanders, M.R., Wittkowski, A.: Interventions for postnatal depression assessing the mother–infant relationship and child developmental outcomes: a systematic review. Int. J. Women’s. Health. 7, 429 (2015)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stein, A., Netsi, E., Lawrence, P.J., Granger, C., Kempton, C., Craske, M.G., Nickless, A., Mollison, J., Stewart, D.A., Rapa, E., West, V., Scerif, G., Cooper, P.J., Murray, L.: Mitigating the effect of persistent postnatal depression on child outcomes through an intervention to treat depression and improve parenting: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. Psychiatry. 5(2), 134–144 (2018). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Newton, J.: Preventing Mental Ill-Health: Informing Public Health Planning and Mental Health Practice. Taylor and Francis, Routledge (2013)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Murray, L., Woolgar, M., Murray, J., Cooper, P.: Self-exclusion from health care in women at high risk for postpartum depression. J. Public. Health. Med. 25(2), 131–137 (2003). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Goyal, N.K., Hall, E.S., Jones, D.E., Meinzen-Derr, J.K., Short, J.A., Ammerman, R.T., Van Ginkel, J.B.: Association of maternal and community factors with enrollment in home visiting among at-risk, first-time mothers. Am. J. Public. Health. 104(S1), S144–S151 (2014)PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    O’Mahen, H.A., Richards, D.A., Woodford, J., Wilkinson, E., McGinley, J., Taylor, R.S., Warren, F.C.: Netmums: a phase II randomized controlled trial of a guided Internet behavioural activation treatment for postpartum depression. Psychol. Med. 44(8), 1675–1689 (2014). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bate, A., Parkin, E., Mackley, A.: Perinatal mental illness: debate pack. London House of Commons Library, vol. CDP-2018-0178 (2018).
  33. 33.
    Jackson, M.I., Kiernan, K., McLanahan, S.: Maternal education, changing family circumstances, and children’s skill development in the United States and UK. Ann. Am. Acad. Political. Soc. Sci. 674(1), 59–84 (2017)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ban, L., Gibson, J.E., West, J., Tata, L.J.: Association between perinatal depression in mothers and the risk of childhood infections in offspring: a population-based cohort study. BMC. Public. Health. 10, 799 (2010). PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Turney, K.: Maternal depression and childhood health inequalities. J. Health. Soc. Behav. 52(3), 314–332 (2011). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sanger, C., Iles, J.E., Andrew, C.S., Ramchandani, P.G.: Associations between postnatal maternal depression and psychological outcomes in adolescent offspring: a systematic review. Arch. Women. Mental. Health. 18(2), 147–162 (2015). Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wagstaff, A., Paci, P., van Doorslaer, E.: On the measurement of inequalities in health. Soc. Sci. Med. 33(5), 545–557 (1991)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wagstaff, A., van Doorslaer, E., Watanabe, N.: On decomposing the causes of health sector inequalities with an application to malnutrition inequalities in Vietnam. J. Econom. 112(1), 207–223 (2003). (Pii S0304-4076(02)00161-6) Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Connelly, R., Platt, L.: Cohort profile: UK millennium cohort study (MCS). Int. J. Epidemiol. 43(6), 1719–1725 (2014). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dex, S., Joshi, H.: Children of the 21st century: from birth to nine months. Policy Press, Bristol (2005)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gjerdingen, D., Crow, S., McGovern, P., Miner, M., Center, B.: Postpartum depression screening at well-child visits: validity of a 2-question screen and the PHQ-9. Ann. Fam. Med. 7(1), 63–70 (2009)PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tonei, V.: Mother’s mental health after childbirth: does the delivery method matter? J. Health. Econ. 63, 182–196 (2019). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Centre for longitudinal studies: measuring signs of psychological distress or depression in teenagers and adults: the malaise inventory. Accessed 17 Aug 2015
  44. 44.
    Boyle, D., Burton, E.: Making Sense of SEN: Special Educational Needs, a Guide for Donors and Grant-Makers. New Philanthropy Capital, London (2004)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Goodman, R.: The strengths and difficulties questionnaire: a research note. J. Child. Psychol. Psychiatry. 38(5), 581–586 (1997)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Goodman, R., Ford, T., Simmons, H., Gatward, R., Meltzer, H.: Using the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) to screen for child psychiatric disorders in a community sample. Br. J. Psychiatry. 177(6), 534–539 (2000)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Goodman, A., Lamping, D.L., Ploubidis, G.B.: When to use broader internalising and externalising subscales instead of the hypothesised five subscales on the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ): data from British parents, teachers and children. J. Abnorm. Child. Psychol. 38(8), 1179–1191 (2010)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Shaw, M., Lawlor, D.A., Najman, J.M.: Teenage children of teenage mothers: psychological, behavioural and health outcomes from an Australian prospective longitudinal study. Soc. Sci. Med. 62(10), 2526–2539 (2006)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Riley, A.W.: Evidence that school-age children can self-report on their health. Ambul. Pediatr. 4(4), 371–376 (2004)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hansen, K., Johnson, J., Calderwood, L., Mostafa, T., Platt, L., Rosenberg, R., Smith, K.: Millennium cohort study: a guide to the datasets. First, second, third, fourth and fifth surveys. In: Hansen, K. (ed.) Centre for Longitudinal Studies. University of London, London (2014)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Noble, M., Wright, G., Smith, G., Dibben, C.: Measuring multiple deprivation at the small-area level. Environ. Plann. A. 38(1), 169–185 (2006)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Anders, Y., Sammons, P., Taggart, B., Sylva, K., Melhuish, E., Siraj-Blatchford, I.: The influence of child, family, home factors and pre-school education on the identification of special educational needs at age 10. Br. Edu. Res. J. 37(3), 421–441 (2011)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Plewis, I., Calderwood, L., Hawkes, D., Hughes, G., Joshi, H.: Millennium Cohort Study: Technical Report on Sampling. Centre for Longitudinal Studies, London (2007)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    O’Donnell, O.A., Wagstaff, A.: Analyzing health equity using household survey data: a guide to techniques and their implementation. World Bank Publications, Washington (2008)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kjellsson, G., Gerdtham, U.G.: On correcting the concentration index for binary variables. J. Health. Econ. 32(3), 659–670 (2013). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Erreygers, G.: Correcting the concentration index. J. Health. Econ. 28, 569 (2009). Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    van Doorslaer, E., Koolman, X., Jones, A.M.: Explaining income-related inequalities in doctor utilisation in Europe. Health. Econ. 13(7), 629–647 (2004). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wilson, G.: The effects of season of birth, sex and cognitive abilities on the assessment of special educational needs. Educ. Psychol. 20(2), 153–166 (2000)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Dearden, L., Sibieta, L., Sylva, K.: The socio-economic gradient in early child outcomes: evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study. Longitud. Life. Course. Stud. 2(1), 19–40 (2011)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kelly, Y., Sacker, A., del Bono, E., Francesconi, M., Marmot, M.: What role for the home learning environment and parenting in reducing the socioeconomic gradient in child development? Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study. Arch. Dis. Child. 96, 832–837 (2011)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Zilanawala, A., Sacker, A., Nazroo, J., Kelly, Y.: Ethnic differences in children’s socioemotional difficulties: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study. Soc. Sci. Med. 134, 95–106 (2015). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sabates, R., Dex, S.: The impact of multiple risk factors on young children’s cognitive and behavioural development. Child. Soc. 29(2), 95–108 (2015). Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jo, H., Schieve, L.A., Sharma, A.J., Hinkle, S.N., Li, R., Lind, J.N.: Maternal prepregnancy body mass index and child psychosocial development at 6 years of age. Pediatrics. 135, 2014–3058 (2015)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Washbrook, E., Gregg, P., Propper, C.: A decomposition analysis of the relationship between parental income and multiple child outcomes. J. R. Stat. Soc. Stat. 177(4), 757–782 (2014). Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Gledhill, J., Ford, T., Goodman, R.: Does season of birth matter?: the relationship between age within the school year (season of birth) and educational difficulties among a representative general population sample of children and adolescents (aged 5–15) in Great Britain. Res. Educ. 68(1), 41–47 (2002)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Rubin, D.B.: Multiple Imputation for Nonresponse in Surveys, vol. 81. Wiley, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Erreygers, G., Kessels, R.: Regression-based decompositions of rank-dependent indicators of socioeconomic inequality of health. In: Rosa Dias, P., O’Donnell, O. (eds.) Health and Inequality (Research on Economic Inequality, Volume 21, Chapter 9). Emerald Group Publishing Limited, London (2013)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hay, D.F., Pawlby, S., Sharp, D., Asten, P., Mills, A., Kumar, R.: Intellectual problems shown by 11-year-old children whose mothers had postnatal depression. J. Child. Psychol. Psychiatry. 42(7), 871–889 (2001)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Zhang, C., Zhao, C., Liu, X., Wei, Q., Luo, S., Guo, S., Zhang, J., Wang, X., Scherpbier, R.W.: Inequality in early childhood neurodevelopment in six poor rural counties of China: a decomposition analysis. Int. J. Equity. Health. 16(1), 212 (2017)PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Straatmann, V., Campbell, M., Rutherford, C., Wickham, S., Taylor-Robinson, D.: OP61 understanding social inequalities in child mental health: findings from the uk millennium cohort study. J. Epidemiol. Commun. H. 71(Suppl 1), A31 (2017). Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Sahrakorpi, N., Koivusalo, S.B., Eriksson, J.G., Kautiainen, H., Stach-Lempinen, B., Roine, R.P.: Perceived financial satisfaction, health related quality of life and depressive symptoms in early pregnancy. Matern. Child. Health. J. 21(7), 1493–1499 (2017)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Petrou, S., Kupek, E., Gray, R.: Income inequalities and self-reported maternal health status: cross-sectional national survey. BJOG Int. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 114(8), 1018–1022 (2007). Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Halligan, S.L., Murray, L., Martins, C., Cooper, P.J.: Maternal depression and psychiatric outcomes in adolescent offspring: a 13-year longitudinal study. J. Affect. Disord. 97(1–3), 145–154 (2007). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hay, D.F., Pawlby, S., Waters, C.S., Sharp, D.: Antepartum and postpartum exposure to maternal depression: different effects on different adolescent outcomes. J. Child. Psychol. Psychiatry. 49(10), 1079–1088 (2008). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pearson, R.M., Evans, J., Kounali, D., Lewis, G., Heron, J., Ramchandani, P.G., O’Connor, T.G., Stein, A.: Maternal depression during pregnancy and the postnatal period: risks and possible mechanisms for offspring depression at age 18 years. JAMA. Psychiatry. 70(12), 1312–1319 (2013). PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Boardman, J.D.: Self-rated health among US adolescents. J. Adolesc. Health. 38(4), 401–408 (2006). PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bauldry, S., Shanahan, M.J., Boardman, J.D., Miech, R.A., Macmillan, R.: A life course model of self-rated health through adolescence and young adulthood. Soc. Sci. Med. 75(7), 1311–1320 (2012). PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    De Los Reyes, A., Kazdin, A.E.: Informant discrepancies in the assessment of childhood psychopathology: a critical review, theoretical framework, and recommendations for further study. Psychol. Bull. 131(4), 483 (2005)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Najman, J.M., Williams, G.M., Nikles, J., Spence, S., Bor, W., O’callaghan M, M., Brocque, R.L., Andersen, M.J.: Mothers’ mental illness and child behavior problems: cause-effect association or observation bias? J. Am. Acad. Child. Adolesc. Psychiatry. 39(5), 592–602 (2000)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bradley, R.H., Corwyn, R.F.: Socioeconomic status and child development. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 53(1), 371–399 (2002)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Brockington, I.: Postpartum psychiatric disorders. Lancet. 363(9405), 303–310 (2004). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Dickerson, A., Popli, G.K.: Persistent poverty and children’s cognitive development: evidence from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. J. R. Stat. Soc. Stat. 179(2), 535–558 (2016). Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gawlik, S., Muller, M., Hoffmann, L., Dienes, A., Wallwiener, M., Sohn, C., Schlehe, B., Reck, C.: Prevalence of paternal perinatal depressiveness and its link to partnership satisfaction and birth concerns. Arch. Women. Mental. Health. 17(1), 49–56 (2014). Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Edoka, I.P., Petrou, S., Ramchandani, P.G.: Healthcare costs of paternal depression in the postnatal period. J. Affect. Disord. 133(1–2), 356–360 (2011). PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Schumacher, M., Zubaran, C., White, G.: Bringing birth-related paternal depression to the fore. Women. Birth. 21(2), 65–70 (2008). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Woodward, A., Kawachi, I.: Why reduce health inequalities? J. Epidemiol. Commun. H. 54(12), 923–929 (2000)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Asaria, M., Griffin, S., Cookson, R., Whyte, S., Tappenden, P.: Distributional cost-effectiveness analysis of health care programmes–a methodological case study of the UK bowel cancer screening programme. Health. Econ. 24(6), 742–754 (2015). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Armstrong, K., Morris, J.: Promoting secure attachment, maternal mood and child health in a vulnerable population: a randomized controlled trial. J. Paediatr. Child. H. 36(6), 555–562 (2000)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Zlotnick, C., Tzilos, G., Miller, I., Seifer, R., Stout, R.: Randomized controlled trial to prevent postpartum depression in mothers on public assistance. J. Affect. Disord. 189, 263–268 (2016). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Cowley, S., Whittaker, K., Malone, M., Donetto, S., Grigulis, A., Maben, J.: Why health visiting? Examining the potential public health benefits from health visiting practice within a universal service: a narrative review of the literature. Int. J. Nurs. Stud. 52(1), 465–480 (2015). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Brugha, T.S., Morrell, C.J., Slade, P., Walters, S.J.: Universal prevention of depression in women postnatally: cluster randomized trial evidence in primary care. Psychol. Med. 41(4), 739–748 (2011). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Whitehead, M., Dahlgren, G.: Levelling up (part 1): a discussion paper on concepts and principles for tackling social inequities in health. World Health Organization, Copenhagen (2006)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kessels, R., Erreygers, G.: Structural equation modeling for decomposing rank-dependent indicators of socioeconomic inequality of health: an empirical study. Health. Econ. Rev. 6(1), 56 (2016)PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Health Economics Unit, Melbourne School of Population and Global HealthUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations