Journal of Ethology

, Volume 37, Issue 3, pp 283–290 | Cite as

Activity patterns and temporal predator avoidance of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during the fawning season

  • Summer D. Higdon
  • Corinne A. DigginsEmail author
  • Michael J. Cherry
  • W. Mark Ford


In the presence of a predator, prey may alter their temporal activity patterns to reduce the risk of an encounter that may induce injury or death. Prey perception of predation risk and antipredator responses may increase in the presence of dependent offspring. We conducted a camera trap study during summer 2015 in North Carolina and Tennessee, USA to evaluate temporal avoidance of a predator (coyote Canis latrans) by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We analyzed activity patterns of bucks, does, and nursery groups (i.e., groups that included fawns) relative to those of coyotes to determine the coefficient of overlap (Δ) using a kernel density estimator. We found that bucks and does had similar Δ with coyotes [Δ1 = 0.729 (0.629–0.890) and Δ1 = 0.686 (0.558–0.816, respectively] and exhibited crepuscular activity patterns comparable to those of coyotes. However, nursery groups displayed a dramatically different activity pattern: unimodal activity was concentrated in the middle of the day with little overlap with coyote activity [Δ1 = 0.362 (0.176–0.491)]. Because adult deer are rarely prey for coyotes, whereas fawns are common prey during summer, the shift in activity patterns of nursery groups demonstrates a behavioral shift likely aimed at avoiding coyote predation on fawns.


Camera traps Canis latrans Landscape of fear Reproductive condition Risky time hypothesis Prey–predator interaction 



Sheryl Bryan, Marquette Crockett, and Matt McCombs provided logistical support. Housing was provided by the Southern Appalachian Highlands Conservancy. Equipment and supplies used in this project were provided by Southern Appalachian Highlands Conservancy and the US Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Associate editor Nobuyuki Kuthsukake, as well as Susan Lingle, and L. Mike Conner provided comments that greatly improved this manuscript. The authors declare no conflict of interest in relation to this work. The use of any trade name, product or firm does not imply endorsement by the US government.


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Copyright information

© Japan Ethological Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Natural ResourcesUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Fish and Wildlife ConservationVirginia TechBlacksburgUSA
  3. 3.US Geological Survey Virginia Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research UnitBlacksburgUSA

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